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Mike Ewall y Katy Nicholson, Energy Justice Network

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1 Mike Ewall y Katy Nicholson, Energy Justice Network
Incineración de residuos peligrosos y llantas en Estados Unidos. Industria cementera: Problemas ambientales y en la salud Photo: TXI Cement Kiln Plant, Midlothian, Ellis County, Texas, USA (from: Mike Ewall y Katy Nicholson, Energy Justice Network

2 Procesamiento de cemento en EUA
There are 107 kilns in the U.S. [1,2,3] The map from EarthJustice shows 137 kilns because it includes lime kilns. [4] 14 cement kilns burn hazardous waste. Another 3 light-weight aggregate kilns (LWAK) also burn hazardous waste [5] 43 (probably at least 50 by now) burn tires. [6,7] Sources: [1] 107 number is from 1997 EPA list (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/pcem/plantlis.pdf) plus the new Camden, NJ facility [2] 103 according to 2000 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) database data in the Toxic Cement report at [3] The Portland Cement Association published the “U.S. and Canadian Portland Cement Industry: Plant Information Summary” in It costs $300 USD and is available at Other related reports giving an overview of the industry are here: The “North American Cement Industry Annual Yearbook” ($150 USD) contains information on the use of wastes as fuel. [4] [5] See EPA database: -- go to bottom of page and view the “Source Information” table in the downloadable Hazardous Waste Combustors Database in MS Access [6] “U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2003 Edition,” Rubber Manufacturers Association, July https://www.rma.org/getfile.cfm?ID=489&type=publication [7] A list and map of U.S. cement kilns burning tires in 2004 and of those considering it can be found at the Portland Cement Association’s factsheet: Fuentes: Mapa, EarthJustice (http://www.earthjustice.org/news/cement_kilns/cement_kilns.html), Lista de plantas, EPA Dec 31st, 1997 (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/pcem/plantlis.pdf), Lista original, US and Canadian Portland Cement Industry: Plant Information Summary, 2003 (For Purchase)

3 Plantas de cemento en México
There are 30 cement kilns in Mexico. 6 are burning tires. As of 1996, at least 21 Mexican kilns have permission to burn hazardous waste. See for the following text: “According to 1996 information, 21 cement plants out of a total of 29 plants in Mexico have provisional permits and temporary authorization to burn hazardous wastes in their kilns. Leading the practice are Cementos Mexicanos (CEMEX), which has permission in 11 of its plants, and Cementos Apasco, with 6 plants authorized to burn hazardous wastes. In addition, Cooperativa Cruz Azul (2 plants) and Cementos Portland Moctezuma and Cementos de Chihuahua (one plant each) also have permission to burn hazardous wastes. Currently, CEMEX is burning hazardous wastes in 5 of its plants; Cementos Apasco in all 6; Cruz Azul in both its plants and Cementos Portland Moctezuma in its one plant. About 70,000 tons of hazardous wastes and alternative fuels were burned in cement kilns in Mexico in 1997, according to representatives from the cement industry.” Fuente: “Energy Use in the Cement Industry in North America, Emissions, Waste Generation and Pollution Control, ,” 2003, p11. (http://www.cec.org/files/pdf/ECONOMY/Session1-2-Jacott-Reed-Winfield_en.pdf)

4 Fabricando cemento Todo el proceso es ambientalmente destructivo.
Extracción y minería de piedra caliza. Transporte de materiales. Combustión en hornos. Cenizas tóxicas (polvo de hornos de cemento). Hornos de Cemento. Uso de energía muy intensivo, sobre todo los hornos con sistema húmedo. Importantes fuentes de contaminación del aire, aún cuando queman solo combustibles fósiles. Peor cuando queman llantas y residuos peligrosos. Traditional cement production can cause environmental problems: the continual extraction and mining of limestone and other materials leaves large scars in the earth; inadequate transportation of extracted materials for grinding and storage in the plant produces a tremendous amount of dust. In Spring Township, Pennsylvania (home to major limestone quarries), drivers drive with lights on during the day because it’s so dusty. Most of their school children have asthma. As in any combustion process,  the calcination process in the kiln produces air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. If the cement kiln dust is deposited back in the quarries from which the limestone was extracted, or to a municipal landfill, it can contaminate soils, groundwater and flood waters. Source: Texas Center for Policy Studies (http://www.texascenter.org/publications/kiln.htm); Spring Township info from Mike Ewall.

5 Proceso de producción de cemento
Extracción de materia prima: piedra caliza (70%) y otros materiales como arcilla, óxido de aluminio, hierro, pizarra y sílice. Se pone la mezcla en hornos rotativos largos, donde se calienta a altas temperaturas (aproximadamente 1.500o C), causando reacciones químicas y físicas. Este proceso, en el que se usa calor para descomponer los materiales, se llama “calcinacion.” Se forma un nuevo material, llamado pre-cemento o “clinker,” compuesto de bolitas del tamaño de una nuez. Se muele el clinker, se lo combina con yeso y se lo empaca. Cuando este producto – cemento – se mezcla con arena, piedra, u otros materiales y agua, se produce concreto. El proceso de calcinación, que convierte la piedra caliza en clinker en el horno, es el paso fundamental decripto antes. Este proceso requiere una cantidad sustancial de energía, brindada por la quema de combustibles, que se inyectan en la parte opuesta del horno, y representan un costo económico importante para la producción de cemento. High temperatures are used to convert mineral feedstock into Portland Cement. Portland cement is a fine, gray powder consisting of lime, silica, alumina, and iron. Source for bullet points: Texas Center for Policy Studies: Image: Brookhaven National Laboratory:

6 Hornos con proceso seco y húmedo
Proceso húmedo Molienda de material con agua. Los barros resultantes se introducen en el horno rotativos. Proceso a temperaturas de 1450°C. Usa más energía que el proceso seco. Proceso seco Molienda de material. El material resultante se mezcla y se introduce en una torre de precalentamiento y en un horno rotativo. Para ambos – horno rotativo funcionando con llama energía-intensiva. “Clinker” se enfria para su manipulación. Fuente: Essroc Italcementi Group (http://www.essroc.com/default.aspx?pageid=183) In the wet process, each raw material is proportioned to meet a desired chemical composition and fed to a rotating ball mill with water. The raw materials are ground to a size where the majority of the materials are less than 75 microns. Materials exiting the mill are called "slurry" and have flowability characteristics. This slurry is pumped to blending tanks and homogenized to insure the chemical composition of the slurry is correct. Following the homogenization process, the slurry is stored in tanks until required. In the dry process, each raw material is proportioned to meet a desired chemical composition and fed to either a rotating ball mill or vertical roller mill. The raw materials are dried with waste process gases and ground to a size where the majority of the materials are less than 75 microns. The dry materials exiting either type of mill are called "kiln feed". The kiln feed is pneumatically blended to insure the chemical composition of the kiln feed is well homogenized and then stored in silos until required. In the wet process, the slurry is fed to a rotary kiln, which can be from 3.0 m to 5.0 m in diameter and from m to m in length. The rotary kiln is made of steel and lined with special refractory materials to protect it from the high process temperatures. Process temperatures can reach as high as 1450oC during the clinker making process. In the dry process, kiln feed is fed to a preheater tower, which can be as high as meters. Material from the preheater tower is discharged to a rotary kiln with can have the same diameter as a wet process kiln but the length is much shorter at approximately 45.0 m. The preheater tower and rotary kiln are made of steel and lined with special refractory materials to protect it from the high process temperatures. Regardless of the process, the rotary kiln is fired with an intense flame, produced by burning coal, coke, oil, gas or waste fuels. Preheater towers can be equipped with firing as well. The rotary kiln discharges the red-hot clinker under the intense flame into a clinker cooler. The clinker cooler recovers heat from the clinker and returns the heat to the pyroprocessing system thus reducing fuel consumption and improving energy efficiency. Clinker leaving the clinker cooler is at a temperature conducive to being handled on standard conveying equipment. Source: Essroc Italcementi Group:

7 Horno de cemento con proceso seco
Ground limestone and other raw materials are placed in rotating kiln. The ground materials are heated by fuel (which can include hazardous wastes), introduced at the opposite end of the kiln. The final product, called "clinker" is cooled and later ground and mixed with gypsum to form cement. Note: Cement Kiln dust forms in the rotating kiln. It is collected by electrostatic precipitators or other air pollution control equipment. In the upper end of the kiln, or Zone 1, raw materials are fed into the kiln (Temperatures of C) In Zone 2, the calcining occurs, dissociating calcium dioxide from the limestone to form calcium oxide (Temperatures of C) In Zone 3 pyroprocessing occurs, when the calcium oxide reacts with silicates, iron, and aluminum to form cement clinker (Temperatures in excess of 1500 C) Hot gases are convected up through the kiln while raw materials pass down toward the lower end Chemical processes transform raw materials to cement clinker. Fuente: Texas Environmental Profiles (http://www.texasep.org/html/wst/wst_4imn_incin.html)

8 Uso de energía en hornos de cemento
Una tonelada de cemento requiere un promedio de 4,4 millones de Btu. Equivalente a 400 libras de carbón. Tipos de combustible usados Carbón Petróleo Coque de petróleo Gas Natural Combustible de residuos peligrosos Combustible derivado de llantas Fuente: American Lung Association (http://www.mindfully.org/Air/Cement-Kilns-Burning-Waste4.htm) Source: “Recycling or Disposal? -- Hazardous Waste Combustion in Cement Kilns: An Introduction to Policy and Legal Issues Associated with Burning Hazardous Waste in Cement Kilns,” by Mark A. Richardson, J.D., April, A Briefing Paper of the American Lung Association Hazardous Waste Incineration Project. Full report available at:

9 Los combustibles fósiles se encarecen
Los precios del carbón escalan mientras aumenta la demanda global (China) [Coal prices climbing as global demand increases (U.S., China…), partially due to rising oil and gas prices] “In this case, many coal buyers and sellers expect the prices to remain elevated because coal supplies and coal consumer inventories are tight at the same time as coal demand is increasing, and neither the tight coal supplies and inventories nor the increasing demand will resolve quickly. …Coal demand is likely to remain high as long as natural gas prices remain above $6.00 per thousand cubic feet.” Source: "Coal News and Markets, Week of October 23, 2005,” U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration. [Note: gas prices have been above $6.00 since April 2005 and have reached $10.97 in Oct 2005: “The Chinese government plans to open more coal mining capacity and shut additional small and illegal mines between now and According to Reuters (September 15) investment in coal mines rose by 82 percent in the first 8 months of If the expansion is successful, China could again become a net exporter of coal. In the meantime, high demand internationally for coal has helped to keep coal prices high and supplies committed.” Source: "Coal News and Markets, Week of November 6, 2005,” U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration. Other Coal News and Markets issues can be found in the archive The newest issue is here:

10 Los combustibles fósiles se encarecen
El petróleo en su pico global [Oil production is peaking globally, meaning supply can no longer meet increasing demand, causing prices to rise] Price of No. 2 & 4 Fuels U.S. Fuel Oil Prices: Peak Oil information: and Cents per Gallon You are here Global Oil Production

11 Los combustibles fósiles se encarecen
La producción de gas natural llegó a su pico en Norteamérica; llegará a su pico global en 2020. Los precios se han triplicado en los ultimos años. México solía exportar gas a EUA y ahora importa de EUA. Precio del Gas Natural en pozo Sources: Gas peak in North America: Global gas peak: * Darley, Julian, “High Noon for Natural Gas: The New Energy Crisis,” * Imam, Asher, Richard A. Startzman and Maria A. Barrufet, "Multicyclic Hubbert model shows global conventional gas output peaking in 2019," Oil & Gas Journal, August 16, Natural Gas Wellhead Prices: U.S. Natural Gas Imports from Mexico: U.S. Natural Gas Exports to Mexico: The cement plant in Samalayuca made changes to its kilns to burn coal and petroleum coke due to sudden high prices of natural gas. In the process, they ended up investing to be able to burn whole tires. There has been a trend of declining use of natural gas for fuel in cement kilns in the U.S., Canada and Mexico. See Table C, page d in “Energy Use in the Cement Industry in North America: Emissions, Waste Generation and Pollution Control, ” (http://www.texascenter.org/publications/cement.pdf).

12 ¿Por qué se usan combustibles alternativos?
Diversificar el uso de combustibles. Incentivos tributarios. Subsidios y préstamos del gobierno. “Beneficios” ambientales. Ganancias por la disposición de residuos. GOVERNMENT GRANTS: In Midlothian, Texas, the Cement Kiln was paid by the State Government of Texas to invest money in their cement kilns to burn tires. In 1996, the state of Pennsylvania passed a Waste Tire Recycling Act, which allows grants to be given to companies to burn tires. See (click on text or PDF for “Current PN: 4201”) ENVIRONMENTAL “BENEFITS”: Since hazardous waste landfills leach into groundwater, U.S. EPA has banned land disposal of certain types of hazardous waste, encouraging hazardous waste incineration. WASTE DISPOSAL PROFITS: Keystone Cement in Bath, Pennsylvania made more money taking hazardous waste than making cement: “[O]ne cement company that has had to disclose its economic profits in sworn testimony stated that its only profits come from burning hazardous waste, not from making cement.” (T. Kinder, Verbatim transcript of supersedes hearings, Keystone Cement Co. vs. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, PA, April 30 (1992). Source: Kleppinger, Edward, "Cement Clinker: An Environmental Sink for Residues From hazardous Waste Treatment in Cement Kilns," Waste Management, Vol 13, No 8, p.556,

13 Incineración de llantas en EUA
45% de las llantas desechadas en EUA se queman “U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2003 Edition,” Rubber Manufacturers Association, July 2004, p2. https://www.rma.org/getfile.cfm?ID=489&type=publication

14 41% de la quema de llantas en EUA se realiza en hornos de cemento.
Resumen del mercado de llantas desechadas en EUA (millones de llantas) 41% de la quema de llantas en EUA se realiza en hornos de cemento. Los hornos de cemento queman el 18% de todas las llantas de EUA. “U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2003 Edition,” Rubber Manufacturers Association, July 2004, p2. https://www.rma.org/getfile.cfm?ID=489&type=publication 41% is 53 million tons burned in cement kilns divided into the Total TDF (129.7 million tons) 18% is that same 53 million tons divided into the million tons of total scrap tire generation

15 Incineración en hornos de cemento en México
A principios de los 90s – se permitió a las empresas de cemento quemar “combustibles alternativos” con autorizaciones de un año. 1996 – SEMARNAT firma un acuerdo con las empresas de cemento para continuar permitiéndoles quemar residuos y para desarrollar estándares. 2001 – se extiende el acuerdo con la industria del cemento. Dic – se aprueban los estándares oficiales para quemar “residuos alternativos”. Casi todos los hornos de cemento tienen hoy permiso para quemar un 5%-30% de combustibles alternativos. Actualmente seis hornos de cemento en México queman llantas: CEMEX Ensenada CEMEX Hermosillo CEMEX Monterrey CEMEX Colima Planta de Cementos Apasco en Apaxco Planta de Cementos de Chihuahua en Samalayuca Source: Norma Oficial Mexicana, NOM-040-ECOL-2002, December Cited on page 5 of "Burning Tires in Cement Kilns Along the U.S.-Mexico Border: Is it a Good Idea and Are There Other Options?" November Published by RAPAM (http://www.rap-al.org) and the Texas Center for Policy Studies (http://www.texascenter.org).

16 Combustibles en la industria del cemento mexicana
Fuente: “Energy Use in the Cement Industry in North America, Emissions, Waste Generation and Pollution Control, ,” 2003, p12. (http://www.cec.org/files/pdf/ECONOMY/Session1-2-Jacott-Reed-Winfield_en.pdf)

17 Combustibles alternativos en la industria de cemento mexicana
Aceites y solventes usados Resinas Fondos de columnas de destilación Textiles Pinturas, tiners, barnices Cuero Hidrocarburos contaminados Caucho Grasas y ceras Madera Barros organicos y de refinería Plásticos Recortes de perforación Papel Solidos contaminados Llantas Suelos contaminados Conversores catalíticos usados Fuente: Table 31 (p46) in Jacott, M., et al. "Energy Use in the Cement Industry in North America: Emissions, Waste Generation and Pollution Control, ," May

18 Hechos sobre las dioxinas
Las dioxinas y los furanos son los químicos mas tóxicos conocidos por la ciencia. Las dioxinas provocan infertilidad, problemas de aprendizaje, endometriosis, malformaciones congénitas, desórdenes en la reproducción sexual, daños en el sistema inmune, entre otros. 93% de las exposiciones a las dioxinas se produce por comer carne y productos lácteos. More information on dioxins at the Dioxin Homepage:

19 Vías de exposición a las dioxinas
Chart is from p37 of the review draft of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's "Estimating Exposure to Dioxin-Like Compounds – Volume 1: Executive Summary" June It can be found on the Dioxin Homepage: Newer estimates can be found in Table 4-30 (p4-110) in Part 1, Volume 2, Chapter 4 of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's "Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds National Academy Sciences (NAS) Review Draft.” The table is on p100 of:

20 Cómo se forman las dioxinas
Las dioxinas se crean quemando hidrocarburos (combustibles fósiles, llantas, residuos peligrosos) con cloro (presente en carbon, llantas y algunos residuos peligrosos) en presencia de oxígeno. Las emisiones de dioxinas aumentan cuando: Hay mas cloro en el combustible/corriente de residuos. Está presente algún metal catalizador. Los gases se mantienen en un rango de bajas temperaturas ( o C). Copper (Cu) is the most potent catalyst for dioxin formation, but Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Potassium (K) and Sodium (Na) have also been found in multiple studies to be correlated with increased dioxin/furan formation. Some studies have also indicated that Manganese (Mn), Magnesium (Mg) and Nickel (Ni) may also serve as catalysts for dioxin formation. See studies here: “Temperature of the combustion gases (i.e., flue gases) is perhaps the single most important factor in forming dioxin-like compounds. Temperatures between 200° and 450° Celsius (C) are most conducive to forming CDD/CDFs, with maximum formation occurring at around 350°C. If temperature falls outside this range in temperature, the amount of CDD/CDFs formed is minimized.” Pages 2-3 of Part 1, Volume 1, Chapter 2 of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's "Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds National Academy Sciences (NAS) Review Draft.” Research on the role of chlorine in the fuel/waste stream can also be found in that chapter.

21 Contaminantes emitidos por los hornos de cemento
Dióxido de carbono (gas de efecto invernadero). Gases ácidos, óxidos de nitrógeno, dióxido de azufre.  19 metales pesados, incluyendo plomo, mercurio, cadmio y cromo VI. Productos de Combustión Incompleta (PICs), incluyendo dioxinas, furanos e Hidrocarburos Aromáticos Polícilicos (PAHs). Fuente: Metals and dioxins end up in the cement and the cement kiln dust as well as the air.

22 Las mediciones no son confiables
Los cálculos de emisiones y el control reglamentario en general se basan en pruebas infrecuentes, realizadas en condiciones óptimas. Las pruebas no reflejan los períodos de encendido, cierre y condiciones irregulares. Las pruebas frecuentemente prestan mucha atención a las temperaturas, el flujo de aire y otras condiciones de operación. Se pueden tomar múltiples muestras hasta que una apruebe. Las mediciones son muy poco frecuentes. “Trial burns are generally considered a poor indicator of operation on a daily basis: during trial burns when regulatory authorization is at stake and government officials are at the site, variables such as wastefeed, temperature, oxygen flow, and pollution control device efficiency are carefully maintained to optimize performance. On a day-to-day basis, emissions may be considerably higher.” -Greenpeace, "Tire incineration and Toxic Emissions: New data from the Modesto Incinerator, Westley, CA." Cement kiln upsets are common "But during stack tests of TDF, cement kilns will do several things to make emissions and combustion look good-to-decent for such facilities: run at higher excess air to improve combustion efficiency control kiln parameters more precisely prevent kiln solid ring formation and buildup that creates havoc for good combustion of any fuels burn lower TDF levels during stack tests than they may be seeking to burn operationally operate and maintain their ESPs or baghouses in top condition to keep particulate emissions to a reduced level, and miscellaneous tricks." -Dr. Neil Carman, "Hazards of Burning Tires." June Regarding Mexican kilns: “only those cement kilns using more than five percent of their fuel as tires are required to monitor for dioxins and furans, metals and toxics (and usually only once every two years). Those using less have no monitoring requirements.” -"Burning Tires in Cement Kilns Along the U.S.-Mexico Border: Is it a Good Idea and Are There Other Options?" November Published by RAPAM (http://www.rap-al.org) and the Texas Center for Policy Studies (http://www.texascenter.org).

23 Monitoreo continuo de emisiones
Generalmente usado solo para óxidos de azufre (SOx), óxidos de nitrogeno (NOx), oxígeno (O2) y monóxido de carbono (CO). Actualmente existe tecnología para monitorear de forma continua: Amoniaco (NH4) Dióxido de Carbono (CO2) Ácido sulfhídrico (H2S) Gases ácidos: Ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4) Ácido fluorhídrico (HF) Ácido hidroclorídrico (HCl) Productos de combustión incompleta (PICs): Dioxinas y furanos Hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs) Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles (COVs) Metales: Antimonio (Sb) Arsenico (As) Bario (Ba) Cadmio (Cd) Cromo (Cr) Plomo (Pb) Manganeso (Mn) Mercurio (Hg) Plata (Ag) Niquel (Ni) Zinc (Zn) …y más Without continuous emissions testing, no one really knows how much pollution is being released into the air. Corporations like it this way. Infrequent testing makes it easy for them to manipulate test results and look cleaner than they really are. Work to get the local, state or national government to require continuous monitoring. Pressure the corporations directly to provide this. If they refuse, ask "what are you hiding?" Demand that test results be made available immediately on a website and that summaries be published weekly in local newspapers. The U.S. EPA publishes a newsletter that tracks the verification of monitoring technologies. Archives can be found here:

24 Polvo de hornos de cemento (CKD) en EUA
Grandes cantidades de material fino liberado y transportado por el flujo de gas caliente dentro del horno de cemento. Captado con sistemas de control de la contaminación como ciclones, precipitadores electrostáticos, o filtros de tela, y luego enviado a rellenos in situ o en otros sitios. 4 millones de toneladas de CKD dispuestas anualmente. En 1990, se producía un promedio de 9 toneladas de CKD por cada 100 toneladas de clinker. Los hornos de cemento con proceso seco generalmente producen mas CKD. Una parte del CKD se “recicla” en el producto de cemento. Source: Beneficial Use of Solid Waste in Maine (http://useit.umaine.edu/materials/ckd/general_information.htm) Cement kiln dust (CKD) is the same as what is called “fly ash” in trash incinerators or coal power plants. Recycling of CKD into cement adds toxic metals to the cement. “In 1990, on average 9 tons of this cement kiln dust (CKD) was produced for every 100 tons of clinker.” Source: See for the rest of the CKD profile on the Beneficial Use in Maine site.

25 Usos “Beneficiosos” No esta considerado como residuo peligroso por la US EPA. Estabilización del suelo. Estabilización y solidificación de residuos. Reemplazo de cemento. Pavimento de asfalto. Relleno de minas. Mejorador de cosechas. Source: Beneficial Use of Solid Waste in Maine (http://useit.umaine.edu/factsheet/fscd.htm)

26 ¿Qué hay en el polvo de los hornos de cemento?
Óxido de calcio. Metales tóxicos: Arsénico, cromo, cadmio, antimonio, bario, berilio, plomo, plata, mercurio, talio, selenio, niquel. Dioxinas, furanos. Calcium Oxide (when mixed with water forms Calcium Hydroxide, also known as hydrated lime) Sources: Material Safety Data Sheet for Ash Grove Durabase CKD. Rachel’s Democracy and Health News #314, “Cement And Kiln Dust Contain Dioxins,” December 02,

27 Problemas del apilamiento de llantas
Las llantas provocan problemas en la salud (mosquitos). Pueden prenderse fuego. Es costoso deshacerce de ellas. No hay muchas restricciones de importación para enviar las llantas a México. 40 millones de llantas obsoletas van anualmente a México. Llantas almacenadas en las ciudades de frontera México Llantas estimadas en pilas Mexicali 5,000,000 Ciudad Juárez 3,000,000 Matamoros 800,000 Reynosa 500,000 Nuevo Laredo 100,000 Piedras Negras 50,000 Ciudad Acuna Texas El Paso 75,000 Fuentese: Compilado de Cappiello (2003), CCBRES (2003), y Foro Binacional (2003). Cited in "Burning Tires in Cement Kilns Along the U.S.-Mexico Border: Is it a Good Idea and Are There Other Options?" November Published by RAPAM (http://www.rap-al.org) and the Texas Center for Policy Studies (http://www.texascenter.org).

28 Combustible derivado de llantas – US EPA
Información general En 2003: 130 millones de llantas de desecho usadas como combustible (45% de la cantidad generada). Usadas trituradas o enteras. Supuestas ventajas Las llantas producen la misma cantidad de energía que el petróleo y un 25% más energía que el carbón. Las cenizas residuales del CDL puede contener menos metales pesados que algunos carbones. Resulta en menos emisiones de NOx en comparación con muchos carbones de EUA, particularmente los carbones altos en azufre. EPA La Agencia apoya el uso responsable de llantas en los hornos de cemento Portland y en otros establecimientos industriales. Source: EPA Tire Derived Fuel page:

29 Llantas México – EUA Muchos millones de llantas de desecho están en la frontera de México-EUA. “Frontera 2012 tiene la intención de reutilizar las llantas generadas por la limpieza para propósitos productivos, tales como el reciclaje o la reutilización” Frontera 2012 es un programa de diez años conducido por la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EUA y la Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales de México (SEMARNAT). Source: "Burning Tires in Cement Kilns Along the U.S.-Mexico Border: Is it a Good Idea and Are There Other Options?" November Published by RAPAM (http://www.rap-al.org) and the Texas Center for Policy Studies (http://www.texascenter.org).

30 Llantas Mexico – EUA Texas, California y Colorado son de los estados de EUA que tienen los mayores sitios de almacenamiento de llantas These tire stockpiles could be exported to Mexico. Source: “U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2003 Edition,” Rubber Manufacturers Association, July https://www.rma.org/getfile.cfm?ID=489&type=publication

31 Composición química de las llantas
Tipos de materiales típicamente usados para fabricar llantas: Caucho sintético Caucho natural Azufre y compuestos de azufre Sílice Resina fenólica Aceites: aromáticos, nafténicos, parafínicos. Telas: Poliester, Nylon, Etc. Ceras de Petróleo Pigmentos: óxido de zinc, dióxido de titanio, etc. Carbón negro Ácidos grasos Materiales inertes Fibras de acero Fuente: U.S. Rubber Manufacturers Association / Scrap Tire Management Council Source: “Facts & Figures: Scrap Tire Characteristics,” U.S. Rubber Manufacturers Association.

32 Composición química de las llantas
Tires contain around 20 different metals, none of which can be destroyed by burning them, since they're elements. Source: “Facts & Figures: Scrap Tire Characteristics,” U.S. Rubber Manufacturers Association. (this chart was removed from the original file on the RMA website after activists drew attention to the data) Representative Analysis of TDF Produced By WRI (Source: TDF Produced From Scrap Tires with 96+% Wire Removed) Source: U.S. Rubber Manufacturers Association / Scrap Tire Management Council

33 Composición química de las cenizas de las llantas
Certain metals present in tires (such as copper, iron, manganese, nickel, sodium and zinc) serve as catalysts for dioxin formation, providing a surface on which dioxins can readily form during and after the combustion process. Source: “Facts & Figures: Scrap Tire Characteristics,” U.S. Rubber Manufacturers Association. (this chart was removed from the original file on the RMA website after activists drew attention to the data) Information on metals as catalysts for dioxin formation is available here: Resultados preliminares de analisis de escoria (cenizas de fondo) Fuente: U.S. Rubber Manufacturers Association / Scrap Tire Management Council

34 Composición química de cenizas de llantas
Source: “Facts & Figures: Scrap Tire Characteristics,” U.S. Rubber Manufacturers Association. (this chart was removed from the original file on the RMA website after activists drew attention to the data) Nota: Estos resultados son de incinerar un 100% de combustibles de llantas. Sources: Radian Corporation, Results From Sampling and Analysis of Wastes From the Gummi Mayer Tire Incinerator, May 1985. Source: U.S. Rubber Manufacturers Association / Scrap Tire Management Council

35 Cloro en llantas Aceites extendedores aromáticos.
“Baño de sal" proceso de vulcanización. Membranas de caucho butilo halogenado Estudio de California: las llantas tienen un nivel de cloro 2-5 veces más alto que el carbón del oeste. Investigación de EPA: los niveles de cloro en llantas son un 2% más altos que el promedio nacional para carbón betuminoso. The manufacture of synthetic rubber for tires uses up to 25% aromatic extender oils, a toxic waste product of oil refining which can contain chlorine. Another possible source of chlorine in tires is through the use of the "salt-bath" vulcanization process, a process where the rubber is made more elastic. One major source of chlorine in tires is their halogenated butyl rubber liners. The addition of chlorine or bromine (the latter used more widely for truck tires) to the butyl rubber gives liners the air-impermeability required to maintain proper tire inflation. A content comparison by the state of California indicates that tires may contain as much as two to five times the chlorine level of western coal, with an average of 0.04 weight percent for western coal, and a range of 0.07 to 0.2 weight percent for tires. The largest proponents of TDF burning (the Rubber Manufacturers Association) confirmed this on their own website, when they listed the chlorine content of tires as being % by weight. An extensive EPA survey of the chemical composition of fuels burned in coal plants found chlorine levels in tires to be 2% higher (1,064 ppm average from 149 samples) than the national average for bituminous coal (1,043 ppm average from 27,352 samples) -- the most widely used type of coal, which also has the highest average concentration of chlorine of any coal type. Since chlorine levels in coal vary throughout the nation, it's possible that the chlorine content of tires could be far higher or lower than coal burned at any specific facility. Source: (specific sources cited within that page)

36 Emisiones de dioxinas por la quema de llantas
Sources available at: Fuentes disponibles en

37 Emisiones de combustible derivado de llantas
Los datos sobre las emisiones de la quema de llantas varían. Algunos estudios comparan una mezcla de de llantas y carbón con 100% carbón; otros comparan con otras mezcla de combustibles La composición química del carbón puede variar segun el tipo de carbón y la región. Los datos son de hornos de cemento, plantas de papel u otros hornos industriales Las condiciones de operación pueden variar.

38 Emisiones del combustible derivado de llantas
Tendencia comunes en comparación con el mezcla de CDL/carbón con 100% carbón For the possibly increasing pollutants, data isn't strong enough to say for certain, but it trends in the direction of increasing. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (also known as Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons) is a name applied to over 100 chemicals containing multiple benzene rings that are difficult to break down. PAHs are known to cause cancer in rats and "may reasonably be expected to be carcinogens" in humans as well, according to the Department of Health and Human Services. Approximately 25% of tire contents are PAHs. Tire incineration tests have shown increases (compared to only burning coal) in PAHs of between 88% and 23,938% (most are in the several hundreds or thousands), although one test found a decrease of 68%.

39 Alternativas a la quema de llantas
Reducción en la fuente. Reducción del uso de tóxicos. Reutilización (Recauchutaje). Reciclaje. Devulcanización. Asfalto de concreto con caucho. Monofills. Even U.S. EPA, which is very supportive of tire burning, states that the reduction, reuse and recycling are better options than burning tires. Reduction: Michelin's tests show that they could use 10% used tire rubber material in new tires and get the same results -- performance and lasting time same as 100% new rubber material. If all tire manufacturers did this, this alone would reduce the amount of used tires by millions of tires per year. Michelin and Yokahama already sell tires with a treadwear rating of 620, which translates to approximately 124,000 miles of expected use, and Goodyear sells a tire with a rating of 540 (approximately 108,000 miles). The average treadwear rating is around , so using more durable tires would dramatically cut down on tire waste. Toxics Use Reduction: manufacturers should end the use of halogenated compounds (chlorine, bromine) in tires and tire liners; metals should be phased out as well Retreading: Since about 60% of the tire material is in the casing, re-treading can make a significant impact. A quality car tire can be re-treaded about three times, and larger vehicles can be re-treaded as many as 12 times. Recycling: “Nova Scotia recycles ALL of its tires using a cryogenic method. The tires are shredded and passed through a tunnel cooled in liquid nitrogen and then pulverized in a hammer mill -using a magnetic belt the materials are separated into three streams - nylon fluff, steel strips and crumb rubber. After further cleaning and sizing the crumb is of a very high quality - the cryogenic method does not change the properties of the rubber and the operation is practically non-polluting. I visited the plant and was impressed, only visible pollution was some dust in the initial shredding area. Absolutely no odors. The crumb rubber is used for things like running tracks, based for astroturf, asphalt and even some back to new tires.” –from chemistry professor and waste expert, Dr. Paul Connett Devulcanization: Vulcanization is the process by which rubber is combined with other ingredients, heated, and hardened in order to render it into a state where it can be made into products like boots, hoses, raincoats, and tires. Goodyear has invented a new devulcanization process that can recover 80% of the rubber from waste tires, which can then be revulcanized and made into new products (including tires). Rubberized Asphalt Concrete: tires are shredded and ground into dust, then mixed with traditional asphalt, making roads that last longer. This is a form of “downcycling” where the tire materials can’t be made back into tires or rubber products. However, rubberized asphalt can be turned back into new rubberized asphalt many times. Monofills: As a last resort, monofilling would involved shredding tires and placing them in a special lined landfill only for shredded tires. More common uses for shredded tires are for the permeable base below a landfill liner, or for civil engineering purposes, such as building up areas for new road construction. More details on most of this here:

40 Combustible de residuos peligrosos - EUA
14 hornos de cemento y 3 hornos de agregado ligero actualmente queman residuos peligrosos en EUA. De las 6 millones toneladas de residuos peligrosos que se manejan en sitios ajenos (comercialmente) cada año en EUA 1,8 millones de toneladas se queman Cerca de toneladas (cerca del 12,5%) se quemaron en hornos de cemento en 1999 Esto es menos que los 37 hornos en 1994, cuando 90% de los residuos peligrosos liquidos se quemaban en hornos For number of kilns burning hazardous waste, see EPA database: -- go to bottom of page and view the “Source Information” table in the downloadable Hazardous Waste Combustors Database in MS Access Data on hazardous waste production and amount burned in kilns is obtained (or calculated) from EPA’s “National Biennial RCRA Hazardous Waste Report (Based On 2003 Data)” See Exhibits 3.1, 3.8 and 3.9 in and for the kilns burning smaller amounts, look them up in For older data, see Introduction to “Recycling or Disposal? -- Hazardous Waste Combustion in Cement Kilns: An Introduction to Policy and Legal Issues Associated with Burning Hazardous Waste in Cement Kilns,” by Mark A. Richardson, J.D., April, A Briefing Paper of the American Lung Association Hazardous Waste Incineration Project. Full report available at:

41 Composición química de los residuos peligrosos
Residuos de operaciones industriales / comerciales relacionadas con pinturas, sólidos de pinturas, solventes gastados. Fluidos de limpieza de metales. Solventes de la industria electrónica (estos materiales incluyen solventes clorados/fluorocarbonos); trazas que contienen metales se integran al cemento. Solventes de limpieza. Residuos de refinerías de petróleo. Los barros del fondo de tambores pueden contener metales mezclados con líquidos de los líquidos allí presentes. Gabbard, William, "Hazardous Waste Fuels and the Cement Kilns: The Incineration Alternative," ASTM Standardization News, Sept

42 Hornos de cemento y residuos peligrosos
Los hornos de cemento no estan diseñados para incinerar residuos peligrosos. Las reglamentaciones de contaminación del aire estan llenas de huecos. Los hornos de cemento tienen flujos de aire masivo 5-6 veces más altos que los incineradores de residuos peligrosos, pero los límites de emisiones permiten concentraciones similares. Las cenizas y los residuos de lavados de gases de los incineradores de residuos peligrosos son considerados residuos peligrosos, pero el polvo de los hornos de cemento no lo es. In timing for the heat in the kiln, as well as the temperature, is not necessarily the same as the requirements for the best possible hazardous waste incineration. Therefore the operation for making cement leaves the process for hazardous waste incineration incomplete, and therefore more polluting. All bottom and fly ash and liquid scrubber waste from hazardous waste incinerators is a hazardous waste under U.S. hazardous waste laws (RCRA), but cement kilns and light-weight aggregate kilns (LWAKs) sell a “product” and so their ash is not regulated as a hazardous waste! -Dr. Neil Carman

43 Hornos de cemento y residuos peligrosos
Planta Total emisiones Factor de diferencia anuales TXI* = 23,995 tpa 12 veces mayores que 3 IRP combinados. AEI* = tpa veces menores que TXI LAI* = tpa veces menores que TXI CWM* = tpa veces menores que TXI Los datos del incinerador de residuos peligrosos son de toneladas anuales en 1995; los de TXI son del borrador del permiso de aire 1997. TPA = toneladas por año * TXI es Texas Industries Inc. Midlothian Cement Kiln Complex. Datos del borrador de permiso del aire TNRCC * AEI es American EnviroTech's un incinerador comercial de residuos peligrosos en Channelview, Harris County, Texas autorizado por TNRCC pero nunca instalado. Los datos son del permiso de TNRCC. * LAI es un incinerador comercial de residuos peligrosos de la empresa Laidlaw (ex Rollins Environmental Services) ubicado en Deer Park, Harris County, Texas. Ahora llamado Safety-Kleen. Datos del permiso de TNRCC. * CWM es un incinerador comercial de residuos peligrosos de Chemical Waste Management en Port Arthur, Jefferson County, Texas. Datos del permiso de TNRCC. TXI's cement kilns are legally allowed to emit 32 to 40 times as much as each incinerator and 12 times as much as all three commercial hazardous waste incinerators in Texas. All data from Dr. Neil Carman

44 Emisiones de dioxinas afectadas por las temperaturas
The Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United States: The Year 2000 Update (External Review Draft, March 2005; EPA/600/p-03/002A). Chapter 5, Table 5-1 (p35). Fuente: The Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like compounds in the United States: The Year 2000 Update (External Review draft, March 2005; EPA/600/p-03/002A

45 Quema de residuos peligrosos = emisiones de dioxinas 21 veces más altas
The Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United States: The Year 2000 Update (External Review Draft, March 2005; EPA/600/p-03/002A). Chapter 5, Tables 5-4 and 5-5 (p38). Fuente: The Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like compounds in the United States: The Year 2000 Update (External Review draft, March 2005; EPA/600/p-03/002A

46 Quema de residuos peligrosos = niveles de dioxinas en polvo de hornos de cemento veces más altos The Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United States: The Year 2000 Update (External Review Draft, March 2005; EPA/600/p-03/002A). Chapter 5, Table 5-7 (p40). Fuente: The Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like compounds in the United States: The Year 2000 Update (External Review draft, March 2005; EPA/600/p-03/002A

47 La historia sucia de Cementos Keystone
1976 Comenzo a quemar residuos peligrosos. Principios de 90's Solicitó aumentar la cantidad de residuos quemados. Oposición de un grupo ciudadano y un grupo de padres y maestros de escuela Se reveló que los datos de computadora habían sido alterados para ocultar violaciones de los permisos. La solicitud de permiso fue suspendida Solicitó quemar 55 tipos de residuos adicionales y aumentar la proporción. Oposición de un grupo ciudadano y un grupo de padres y maestros de escuela. El estado pidió una evaluación de riesgos de salud. 7/1997 Volvió a solicitar quemar más residuos, pero... 12/1997 El tanque de combustible de residuos peligrosos se recalentó, evacuación de 1-milla. Los ciudadanos reclaman mejores controles de seguridad, monitoreo y registro. 8/1999 Retiró la solicitud. Keystone Cement in Pennsylvania has burned hazardous waste as a fuel since 1976.  In the early 1990s, Keystone applied to increase the amount of waste they burned.  Community groups and school PTAs put them under intense public scrutiny.  In 1992 it was revealed that Keystone had altered computer records to conceal that fact that it had been burning more hazardous wastes than its permits allowed.  It had violated its permit 340 times in three years and was trying to hide that from the DEP.  The permit process was suspended and the company paid a fine. By 1995 it sought a permit to add 55 new types of hazardous waste and increase the burn rate from 50% to 75%.  The community and PTAs were opposed, and DEP ordered Keystone to perform a health risk assessment before considering the permit application. In July 1997, Keystone again applied to burn more waste.  However, on December 8, a 30,000-gallon pressurized tank of  volatile hazardous waste overheated to twice the normal temperature and 20 degrees beyond flashpoint.  It was only discovered because a worker happened to touch the tank and noticed it was too warm.  An explosion could have leveled the facility. A 1-mile radius was evacuated, including 960 children from 2 nearby schools and two homes for the aged.  The PTAs called for additional and tighter safety controls, precise flow meter monitoring, and long-term record keeping.  In August 1999, Keystone withdrew their application to use a 75% burn rate. Now the community is trying to get Keystone to take better care of the dust piles.

48 Relaciones públicas / Asociaciones de comercio
Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (www.ckrc.com) Association for Responsible Thermal Treatment (ARTT) CKRC is the cement kiln industry’s lobbying arm to promote the burning of tires and hazardous waste as “recycling.” ARTT was an association formed in late 1993 by six commercial hazardous waste incinerator corporations to stop cement kilns (their competitors) from being allowed to burn hazardous waste. See:

49 Para mayor información…
Energy Justice Network: GAIA: American Lung Association report: Downwinders at Risk Montanans Against Toxic Burning Texas Center for Policy Studies Alberni Environmental Coalition Friends of Hudson National Citizens Alliance Listas de To subscribe to networks for activists fighting tire burning or cement kilns, contact Mike Ewall at


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