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The Preterite & The Imperfect Concepts and Forms.

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Presentación del tema: "The Preterite & The Imperfect Concepts and Forms."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 The Preterite & The Imperfect Concepts and Forms

2 The concept of the Preterite Tense Expresses actions or events that began and ended at a definite time in the past: for example, a week ago, last month, yesterday, last summer.

3 Ejemplos Abe Lincoln fue presidente en Los congresistas americanos firmaron la Declaración de Independencia el 2 de agosto, 1776.

4 Más ejemplos Mi hija compró un Civic y yo compré un Accord el mismo día en mayo, Mi esposo y yo fuimos a Charleston, S.C. en abril, 2005.

5 Más ejemplos El equipo jugó anoche. Ayer, mi madre me llevó a la casa de mi tía. Terminé el libro Timeline la semana pasada. definite moment in the past In these examples, why is the preterite used? (i.e., What is the definite moment in the past ?)

6 Time expressions that often accompany the use of the preterite tense ayer anoche anteayer la semana pasada hace un mes el año pasado el fin de semana pasada el verano pasado el domingo pasado

7 Forms for the Preterite

8 Regular –ar Verbs -é -aste -ó -amos -asteis -aron

9 Ejemplo: trabajar trabajé trabajaste trabajó trabajamos trabajasteis trabajaron

10 Regular –ar verbs have a spelling change in the yo form only… -gar-gué -car-qué -zar-cé … for verbs that end with :

11 Ejemplo: jugar jugué jugaste jugó jugamos jugasteis jugaron

12 Regular –er/-ir Verbs -í -iste -ió -imos -isteis -ieron

13 Ejemplo: vivir viví viviste vivió vivimos vivisteis vivieron

14 Dar: confused identity Dar is an -ar verb that prefers to belong in the company of regular -er and -ir verbs. It uses their endings: didimos distedisteis diodieron In fact, its best friends withver! vi vimos viste visteis vio vieron

15 Irregular Verbs in the Preterite fui fuiste fue fuimos fuisteis fueron I r & S e r

16 Irregular categories y group (only slightly irregular) worm verbs (only slightly irregular) u group v group i group j group

17 y group The verbs that belong to this group are verbs that end in –er or –ir, and that have a vowel as the last letter in the stem. leer creer oír construir (caer) (huir)

18 How do they work? leí leíste leyó leímos leísteis leyeron (leer) The y replaces what letter?

19 Worm verbs Some verbs follow a pattern that affects only the 3 rd person singular and plural forms. See if you can describe the pattern after studying the next two slides.

20 Worm verb: dormir dormí dormiste durmió dormimos dormisteis durmieron Before we state the rule, lets look at another

21 Worm verb: morir morí moriste murió morimos moristeis murieron To state the rule, consider what the change is and what verbs are affected.

22 Worm verbs Some verbs ending in -ir that have an o in the stem, make a change from o to u. This change only happens in the él/ella/Ud. form and the ellos/ellas/Uds. form.

23 Other worm verbs: e i pedí pediste pidió pedimos pedisteis pidieron

24 Recap: y group What did you find out about forming the preterite for the y group? Whats an example of a verb that fits in this category? The verbs that belong to this group are verbs that end in –er or –ir, and that have a vowel as the last letter in the stem.

25 Recap: worm verbs What did you find out about forming the preterite for worm verbs? Whats an example of a verb that fits in this category? The verbs that belong to this group end in –ir, have either an o that changes to u or an e that changes to i, but only in the 3 rd sing. and plural.

26 Now it REALLY gets harder! We use the following preterite endings for 3 groups. -e-imos -iste(-isteis) -o-ieron u group v group i group

27 The u group saber = to know/find out (sup-) poder = to be able/succeed (pud-) poner = to put (pus-)

28 Preterite forms of saber supe supiste supo supimos supisteis supieron

29 Preterite forms of poder pude pudiste pudo pudimos pudisteis pudieron

30 The v group andar = to run, walk (anduv-) tener = to have (tuv-) estar = to be (estuv-)

31 The i group querer = to want (quis-) venir = to come (vin-) hacer = to do/make (hic-) (but, él hizo)

32 The j group decir = to say/tell (dij-) traer = to bring (traj-) traducir = to translate (traduj-) producir = to produce (produj-) conducir = to drive (conduj-) -e-imos -iste(-isteis) -o-eron

33 decir in the preterite (dij-) dije dijiste dijo dijimos dijisteis dijeron

34 The concept of the Imperfect Tense The primary difference between the preterite and the imperfect, is that the imperfect is not specific to any specific time period in the past.

35 Uses Age Continuous, habitual or repeated action(s) Time & date Interrupted action (with preterite being used to describe the interrupting action) Conditions or physical characteristics (provided usually as background)

36 Uses, contd heart and head (emotions and mental states) following mientras used to was/were __-ing was/were going to + infinitive –Iba a estudiar, pero no lo hice.

37 Heart and Head Usually when you want to express ideas such as querer, esperar, etc. or pensar, creer, etc., the preferred tense is the imperfect. (Also, many verbs preserve their meaning better when expressed in the imperfect. Sometimes these heart/head verbs have a slightly different meaning when used in the preterite.)

38 Verb meanings querer = to want no querer = to not want saber = to know conocer = to know poder = to be able no poder = to not be able to try to refuse to find out to meet to succeed to fail

39 Interrupted & Interrupting Actions Whenever you have one action interrupting another action, use the preterite for the interrupting action and the imperfect for the action that was interrupted.

40 Mientras yo cocinaba, el gato se cayó de la mesa.

41 Time Expressions: Imperfect siempre a veces muchas veces de vez en cuando raramente a menudo frecuentemente cada vez los __ (days/seasons) cada __ (day/month/season/year) todo el tiempo mientras ya no nunca may be used with either preterite or imperfect, whichever conveys the intended meaning.nunca may be used with either preterite or imperfect, whichever conveys the intended meaning.

42 Haber Había = There was / There were Hubo = There took place imperfect preterite

43 Imperfect Forms: regular -aba -abas -aba -ábamos -abais -aban -ar verbs

44 Imperfect Forms: regular -ía -ías -ía -íamos -íais -ían -er/-ir verbs

45 Imperfect: irregular era éramos eras erais era eran iba íbamos ibas ibais iba iban veía veíamos veías veíais veía veían


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