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Past Tense Preterite Imperfect Preterite vs Imperfect.

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Presentación del tema: "Past Tense Preterite Imperfect Preterite vs Imperfect."— Transcripción de la presentación:

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2 Past Tense Preterite Imperfect Preterite vs Imperfect

3 Preterite conjugation Regular Verb Endings: ___-ar__ _ ____-er/-ir___ -é-amos-í-imos -aste-asteis-iste-isteis -ó-aron-ió-ieron

4 Preterite conjugation Irregular Yo Yo spelling changes: -car -qué -gar-gué -zar-cé

5 Otros verbos –car acercarse (to come near, approach)buscar (to look for) arrancar (to pull out, start (engine)chocar (to crash) colocar (to place, put)complicar (to complicate) comunicar (to communicate)criticar (to criticize, critique) dedicar (to dedicate, devote) educar (to educate) embarcarse (to board, go on board)marcar (to dial, mark) equivocarse (to make a mistake) masticar (to chew) fabricar (to make, manufacture)pescar (to fish) justificar (to justify, give a reason for)platicar (to chat) practicar (to practice)secar (to dry) explicar (to explain) sacar (to take out, remove, receive [grades])

6 Otros verbos –gar agregar (to add)ahogarse (to drown) apagar (to turn off)cargar (to carry, load) castigar (to punish)despegar (to take off, peel off) pagar (to pay)pegar (to hit, glue) tragar (to swallow)llegar (to arrive) encargar (to put in charge, order [goods]) Stem changers colgar (ue) (to hang up)fregar (ie) to wash dishes, scrub) negar (ie) (to deny)regar (ie) (to water plants) jugar (ue) (to play a game, sports) rogar (ue) (to beg)

7 Otros verbos –zar almorzar (to eat lunch)abrazar (to hug) aterrizar (to land)cruzar (to cross) comenzar (ie) (to begin)empezar (ie) (to begin) especializarse en (to specialize in, major in) garantizar (to guarantee)gozar (to enjoy) lanzar (to throw)rezar (to pray) realizar (to carry out, attain, realize) tranquilizar (to calm down) tropezar (ie) (to trip, stumble)utilizar (to use, make use of)

8 Preterite Irregular Conjugation -uve group andar- to walk – anduve, anduviste, anduvo, anduvimos, anduvisteis, anduvieron tener- to have – tuve, tuviste, tuvo, tuvimos, tuvisteis, tuvieron estar- to be – estuve, estuviste, estuvo, estuvimos, estuvisteis, estuvieron

9 Preterite Irregular Conjugation I group hacer- to do, to make – hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos, hicisteis, hicieron venir- to come – vine, viniste, vino, vinimos, vinisteis, vinieron querer- to want – quise, quisiste, quiso, quisimos, quisisteis, quisieron

10 Preterite Irregular Conjugation J group traer- to bring – traje, trajiste, trajo, trajimos, trajisteis, trajeron decir- to have – dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron traducir- to translate (all -ucir verbs like conducir to drive) – traduje, tradujiste, tradujo, tradujimos, tradujisteis, tradujeron

11 Preterite Irregular Conjugation supe, pu-, pu- group saber- to know – supe, supiste, supo, supimos, supisteis, supieron poner- to put – puse, pusiste, puso, pusimos, pusisteis, pusieron poder- to be able – pude, pudiste, pudo, pudimos, pudisteis, pudieron

12 Preterite Irregular Conjugation Other Verbs caber- to fit – cupe, cupiste, cupo, cupimos, cupisteis, cupieron satisfacer- – satisfice, satisficiste, satisfizo, satisficimos, satisficisteis, satisficieron

13 Preterite Irregular Conjugation Ser- to be and ir- to go. (You know which verb it is by using context of the sentence) fuifuimos fuistefuisteis fuefueron

14 Dar and Ver dar- to give ver- to see didimosvi vimos distedisteisvistevisteis diodieronviovieron

15 Preterite Stem Changers Stem changes occur in –ir verbs only. Stem changes occur in él/ella/Ud. and ellos/ellas/Uds only. Stem changes are: – e i – o u

16 Preterite Stem Changers sentir (ei, i) (to feel) advertir (ei, i) (to warn) convertir (ei, i) (to convert) convertirse (ei, i) (to become) divertir (ei, i) (to amuse) mentir (ei, i) (to lie) divertirse (ei, i) (to amuse oneself) preferir (ei, i) (to prefer) sentir (ei, i) (to feel, be sorry) sentirse (ei, i) (to feel) dormir (ue, u) (to sleep) morir (ue, u) (to die) dormirse (ue, u) (to fall asleep)

17 Preterite Stem Changers servir (i, i) (to serve) medir (i, i) (to measure) repetir (i, i) (to repeat) seguir (i, i) (to continue) despedir (i, i) (to fire someone) vestir (i, i) (to dress) pedir (i, i) (to ask for, request)reír (i, i) (to smile) conseguir (i, i) (to get, obtain) sonreír (i, i) (to laugh) vestirse (i, i) (to dress oneself) freír (i, i) (to fry) despedirse de (i, i) (to say good-bye to)

18 Preterite conjugation i to y change (not –uir) Verbs that end in –er or –ir whose stem ends in a vowel, change i to y in the 3 rd person forms, él/ella/Ud. and ellos/ellas/Uds only. leer leíleímos leísteleistéis leyóleyeron caerse (to fall down), creer (to believe), oír (to hear), poseer (to posess)

19 Preterite conjugation -uir verbs (not –guir verbs) Verbs ending in –uir also change i to y. (Note: there are no accents on tú, nosotros, y vosotros) concluir- (to conclude) concluíconcluimos concluisteconcluisteis concluyóconcluyeron

20 Preterite conjugation Other –uir Verbs atribuir (to attribute) construir (to build) contribuir (to contribute) distribuir (to distribute) huir (to flee) incluir (to include)

21 Translation The English Translation for the preterite is: Yo hablé- I spoke

22 Preterite Trigger Words: ayeranteayer una vezluego entonces de repente cuando anoche hace # años que... la semana pasada el mes/año pasado

23 Preterite Uses: Specific Action Happened Once Specific Point in Time Sequential Actions Narration (AKA telling a story) Interrupting Action Beginning or End of an action in past

24 Imperfect Regular Verb Endings: __-ar__ -er/-ir_ _ -aba-ábamos-ía-íamos -abas-abais-ías-íais -aba-aban-ía-ían

25 Imperfect 3 irregular verbs: __ir__ __ser__ __ver__ iba íbamos era éramosveía veíamos ibas ibaiseras eraisveías veíais iba ibanera eranveía veían

26 Imperfect Translation The English Translation for the imperfect is: I used to speak Yo hablaba- I was speaking I would speak I spoke

27 Imperfect Trigger Words: algunas veces generalmente muchas vecestodos los días a menudo siempre frecuentementea veces mientrasde vez en cuando cada (día, año, etc.)los lunes/los martes

28 Imperfect Uses: Repeated Action Continuous Action Habitual Actions (aka Used to) Descriptions/ Physical Appearance/ Emotional State Background Info Day/Date/Weather/Age 2 Actions Occurring at the Same Time An ongoing action interrupted by another action (2nd action is preterite)

29 Comparing Usage Preterite Specific Action Happened Once Specific Point in Time Sequential Actions Narration (AKA telling a story) Interrupting Action Beginning or End of an action in past Imperfect Repeated Action Continuous Action Habitual Actions (aka Used to) Descriptions/ Physical Appearance/ Emotional State Background Info Day/Date/Weather/Age 2 Actions Occurring at the Same Time An ongoing action interrupted by another action (2nd action is preterite)

30 Preterite vs Imperfect: verbs that change meaning VerbPreteriteImperfect ConocerConocí- I metConocía- I knew (to know a person or place) saberSupe- I found outSabía- I knew (to know a fact or how to do something) pensarPensé- It dawned on mePensaba- I thought (to think)I realized poderPude- I managedPodía- I could (to be able, can) I was able

31 Preterite vs Imperfect: verbs that change meaning VerbPreteriteImperfect no poderNo pude- I couldn´t (failed to)No podía- I couldn´t (to not be able)(a specific effort and (No reference to specific failure implied) effort or failure) quererQuise- I triedQuería- I wanted (to want) no quererNo quise- I refusedNo quería- I didn´t (to not want) want to tenerTuve- I gotTenía- I had (to have)

32 Preterite vs Imperfect: verbs that change meaning VerbPreteriteImperfect tener queTuve que...- I had to... Tenía que...- I was (to have to...) supposed to... costarCostó- It cost Costaba- It cost (to cost) (and I bought it (implies that I didn´t buy it)


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