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¡Buenos días, chicos! Hoy empezamos las últimas semanas del primer semestre con el estudio de … La formación de los tiempos verbales del subjuntivo y los.

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Presentación del tema: "¡Buenos días, chicos! Hoy empezamos las últimas semanas del primer semestre con el estudio de … La formación de los tiempos verbales del subjuntivo y los."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 ¡Buenos días, chicos! Hoy empezamos las últimas semanas del primer semestre con el estudio de … La formación de los tiempos verbales del subjuntivo y los mandatos jk....jk....jk....jk trabajaremos con el vocabulario, los cognados y los errores comunes...

2 Common errors to be corrected Sometimes cognates are very helpful Sometimes patterns for understanding Spanish are seen through cognates. What does cognates mean, anyway? related by birth linguistics: (L: cognatus) descended from the same language or form Many English & Spanish words are cognates and follow a pattern:

3 - tion Words in English with two or more syllables that end with the letters –tion administration, application, benediction, distribution, education, frustration, fabrication, lamination, laceration, manipulation, narration, occupation, salvation, transportation, ventilation, corruption, evacuation, speculation, gravitation, justification, oscillation, station, violation, nutrition, conservation to form the word in Spanish, substitute –tion with –ción administración, aplicación, bendición, distribución, educación, frustración, fabricación, laminación, laceración, manipulación, narración, ocupación, salvación, transportación, ventilación, corrupción, evacuación, especulación, gravitación, justificación, oscilación, estación, violación, nutrición, conservación

4 -ate words in English with two or more syllables that end with the letters –ate: articulate, capitulate, conjugate, defoliate, donate, elevate, fabricate, formulate, germinate, graduate, illuminate, imitate, lacerate, manipulate, navigate, obligate, participate, precipitate, quadruplicate, radiate, reciprocate, segregate, simulate, situate, terminate, tolerate, validate to translate them into English, substitute –ate with –ar: articular, capitular, conjugar, defoliar, donar, elevar, fabricar, formular, germinar, graduar, iluminar, imitar, lacerar, manipular, navegar, obligar, participar, precipitar, cuadruplicar, radiar, reciprocar, segregar, simular, situar, terminar, tolerar, validar

5 -ize words in English that end in –ize amortize, brutalize, cauterize, deodorize, editorialize, equalize, familiarize, federalize, glamorize, harmonize, individualize, initialize, legalize, materialize, nebulize, patronize, penalize to translate them into Spanish, substitute the –ize for –izar: amortizar, analizar, brutalizar, cauterizar, desodorizar, editorializar, ecualizar, familiarizar, federalizar, glamorizar, armonizar, individualizar, inicializar, legalizar, materializar, nebulizar, patronizar, penalizar

6 -al words in English with two or more syllables that end with the letters –al: abdominal, actuarial, arterial, bacterial, binocular, carnal, celestial, cereal, colonial, cordial, cortical, digital, electoral, facial, fundamental, gradual, imperial, individual, jovial, lateral, manual, mental, neutral, oriental, original, paternal, personal, regional, temperamental, terminal, universal, verbal, viral, vocal to translate them into Spanish, substitute the ending with –al abdominal, actuarial, arterial, bacterial, binocular, carnal, celestial, cereal, colonial, cordial, cortical, digital, electoral, facial, fundamental, gradual, imperial, individual, jovial, lateral, manual, mental, neutral, oriental, original, paternal, personal, regional, temperamental, terminal, universal, verbal, viral, vocal

7 -ic words in English that end with the letters –ic academic, barometric, caloric, clinic, fanatic, geographic, harmonic, intrinsic, linguistic, logic, magic, magnetic, organic, panic, plastic, pragmatic, problematic, republic, septic, symphonic, telegraphic, tonic, toxic, volcanic to translate them into Spanish, substitute the ending for –ico académico, barométrico, calórico, clínico, fanático, geográfico, harmónico, intrínsico, jurídico, lingüístico, lógico, mágico, magnético, orgánico, pánico, plástico, pragmático, problemático, republico, séptico, sinfónico, telegráfico, tónico, tóxico, volcánico

8 do you get the idea? English with two or more syllables...-ity Spanish: substitute –ity with –idad English with two or more syllables...-ive Spanish: substitute –ive with –ivo English with two or more syllables ending in –ent Spanish: substitute -ent with -ente English ending with the letters –ary or –ory Spanish: -ario, -orio

9 ...and add to the idea... English ending in –ism Spanish: substitute –ism with –ismo English ending in –ally Spanish: substitute –ally with –mente English ending in –ism Spanish: substitute –ism with –ismo English ending in –sion Spanish: substitute –sion with –sión English ending in –ous Spanish: substitute –ous with –oso

10 sorpresa: -ble is the same –ble in both languages ¿Te ayuda esto? ¡Espero que sí! Ahora, hablamos un poco de los errores comunes... y las expresiones que confunden un poco:

11 Al entrar en clase: En la sección de vocabulario de tu carpeta de argollas, empieza una sub- sección con el título verbos confundidos They share the same translation in English but are not interchangeable in Spanish…

12 El primer verbo confundido : to ask Pedir means to ask for something or to request (if there is a change in subject, it will require the use of the subjunctive): Pedí el menú al entrar.I asked for the menu upon entering. Le pido a Juan que vaya.I ask Juan to go. Preguntar means to ask a question or solicit information: Ella le preguntó a dónde fue.She asked him where he went. Hacer preguntas means to ask questions: Me hicieron muchas preguntas. They asked me a lot of questions. Preguntar por means to ask after/for someone: Al entrar en la tienda, preguntamos por el gerente. Upon entering the store we asked for the manager.

13 El 2 ndo verbo confundido : to attend Atender means to attend to, to take into account, to take care of, or to wait on: La azafata va a atender a los pasajeros. The flight attendant is going to take care of the passengers. Asistir (a) means to attend a function or be present: Mucha gente asistió a la reunión. A lot of people attended the meeting. Asistir also means to help, or to assist: La profesora me asistió con el problema. The teacher helped me with the problem.

14 El 3 er verbo confundido : to become Hay muchas maneras de decir to become. Depende del sentido que quieres. Ponerse + adjetivo = to indicate a change of mood, physical condition, appearance. These changes are usually short-lived, with the exception of ponerse viejo (to become old, to get old): Te vas a poner gordo. Youre going to get fat. Se puso pálida. She became pale. El día se ha puesto gris. The day has turned grey.

15 To become … Ponerse + adjetivo = to indicate a change of mood, physical condition, appearance. These changes are usually short-lived, with the exception of ponerse viejo (to become old, to get old). A veces usamos un verbo en el reflexivo para expresar lo siguiente: Aburrirse to get bored Alegrarse to become happy Asustarse to be (become) scared Cansarse to get (become) tired Enfermarse to become ill, to get sick Irritarse to get irritated Entristecerse to become sad

16 To become … Volverse + adjetivo = implies involuntary mental or physical change. It is more permanent than ponerse. Adjectives that can be used with both ser and estar can be used with this verb. It can also mean to go. Se volvió loco de tanto pensar/estudiar etc. He became mad from so much thinking/studying etc. Elena se volvió alegre/sarcástica/loca. Elena became happy/sarcastic/mad. ¡¡Hay más!!

17 To become … Hacerse + sustantivo/adjetivo = implies voluntary effort, as well as for religious, professional or political changes. Can also be used occasionally for circumstances: Se hizo católico. He became a Catholic. Se hace tarde.It's getting late. Va a hacerse arquitecto.He's going to become an architect. ¡¡Hay más!!

18 To become … Llegar a ser + sustantivo/adjetivo = indicates the result of a slow and sometimes difficult change over time: Trabajó mucho y después de diez años llegó a ser médico/alguien importante/arquitecto etc. He worked very hard and after ten years he became a doctor/someone important/architect etc. ¡¡Hay más!!

19 To become … Convertirse en + sustantivo = to turn into. The noun may NOT be a profession. *** This precedes noun phrases but not adjectives *** Se ha convertido en un criminal. He has become a criminal. Hitler se convirtió en un verdadero tirano. Hitler became a real tyrant. El príncipe se convirtió en rana. The prince turned into a frog. Hay más …

20 To become … Quedarse + adjetivo = implies involuntary or accidental change: Se ha quedado ciego del accidente. He became blind from the accident. ¡¡No hay más!! (hoy…)…


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