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Presentación del tema: "Isaías."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Isaías

2 Extracto

3 Profecía Profecía oral y escrito, escrito por el profeta mismo o sus discípulos (escuela de profetas, vea 2 Reyes 2) Dos tipos de profecía—decir (enseñar) y predecir (futuro cercano o distante. ¿Cuál es la profecía que se menciona en I Corintios 12? Mucha profecía era condicional—esto pasará SI esto ocurre o no. Cumplimiento parcial o completo de profecía, o doble cumplimiento, como en Isaías 7:14.

4 Formas de literatura—poesía, cantos, proesía
Formas de literatura—poesía, cantos, proesía?, apocalíptico, historia, discurso, exhortación, parábola, alegoría Tipos de oráculos proféticos—esperanza, castigo, pacto/juicio, lamentos, intercesión profética.

5 ¿Qué dice Libronix de la introducción a Isaías?
Temas críticas ¿Qué dice Libronix de la introducción a Isaías?

6 Autor Isaías el hijo de Amoz (Isa. 1:1). Isaías significa “salvación”. Residía en Jerusalén, y tuvo acceso a la corte real. ¿Primo del rey Uzías? Casado (8:3) Dos hijos Sear-Jasub (7:3) Maher-salal-hasbaz (8:3)

7 Fecha Isaías fue llamado al ministerio en el año en que murió el rey Uzías“ (6:1), hasta que murió Ezequías ( AC) Isaiah profetizó durante de los reinos de Uzías ( ), Jotam ( ), Acaz ( ), y Ezequías ( ).

8 Unidad del libro 1-39, Deutero-Isaías O 1-39, 40-55, Trito-Isaías)

9 Evidencia externa Tradición judía—Isaías Rollos del Mar Muerto—un libro según los de Qumran Septuaginta lo tiene como un libro. Tradición cristiana, hasta el siglo 18.

10 5. Autores del NT—todas las secciones de Isaías son citadas bajo el título Isaías. Juan 12:38 y Is. 53:1, Juan 12:39-40 e Is. 6:10 Isa. 40:3 y Matt. 3:3; Marcos 1:2-3; Juan 1:23 Isa. 42:1-4 y Mat. 12:17-21; Isa. 53: 7-8 y Hechos 8:32-33 Isa. 65:1 y Rom. 10:20).       **Jesucristo leyó del rollo del profeta Isaías (Lu. 4:17-19)

11 Jordan and Dead Sea from Qumran
Names of the Dead Sea This body of water has only been known as the “Dead Sea” since the Roman period. In the Bible, the Dead Sea is known most often as the “Salt Sea.” It is sometimes referred to as the “Sea of the Arabah,” denoting the region in which it is located. Apocryphal, Classical, Talmudic, and Arab authors refer to it variously as the “Sea of Sodom,” the “Sea of Lot,” the “Sea of Asphalt,” and the “Stinking Sea.” In Greco-Roman times, the sea was known as the “Pitch Sea” because of the bitumen that was extracted from it. In the Crusader period, it was sometimes called the “Devil’s Sea.” Jordan and Dead Sea from Qumran

12 Dead Sea northern end and Qumran aerial from west
Mt. Nebo Dead Sea northern end and Qumran aerial from west Plains of Moab Qumran The Lowest Point on Earth The Dead Sea is 1,300 feet below sea level. This is the lowest point on earth. Other countries have regions that are below sea level, but none as deep as the Jordan Rift. The lowest point in Asia is 490 feet below sea level. The lowest point in Africa is 435 feet below sea level. The lowest point in North America is 282 feet below sea level (Death Valley, CA). Dead Sea northern end and Qumran aerial from west

13 Dead Sea and area of Qumran from above
Dead Sea and area of Qumran from south

14 Qumran from above Qumran from above

15 Qumran aerial from west
Main cemetery Northern cemetery Wadi Qumran Communal center Aqueduct Cave 4 Qumran’s Settlement History in Brief 8th-7th century B.C. A cistern was found from the time of Uzziah. It may have been one of Uzziah’s towers in the wilderness (2 Chr 26:10). It was a good caravan stopping point. This may also be the City of Salt mentioned in the OT (Josh 15:62; 16:61). Salt was precious for cooking and sacrifices. B.C. Many people moved here during John Hyrcanus’ reign ( B.C.), but the community was destroyed by a fire and earthquake. Josephus wrote that this earthquake was in the spring of 31 B.C. and killed 30,000 people. 4 B.C A.D. It was uninhabited during the time of Herod the Great, but was later rebuilt during the time of Archelaus. The Romans destroyed it during the Jewish Revolt. Qumran aerial from west

16 “Scriptorium” at Qumran
The Scriptorium (Room 30) On the basis of inkwells and "writing benches" which were found in the second-story room of this building, archaeologists have suggested that this was where scrolls were copied. The benches were wooden desks that were covered with a plaster coating. Some of these were destroyed in fighting during the 1967 war while stored at the Rockefeller Museum. No scrolls were found in this room or in the ruins of the site itself.  However, the same type of unique pottery was found both on site and in the caves with the scrolls. This has helped to connect the caves with the site. “Scriptorium” at Qumran

17 “Scriptorium” at Qumran

18 Qumran excavations and cemetery from watchtower
The Cemetery A wall separated the settlement from the cemetery on the east side. Eleven hundred are buried in the main cemetery. The southern cemetery is on the south side of Nahal Qumran. Thirty people were buried here. Other than the women and children found buried on the south finger, nothing else distinguishes the cemeteries. Thirty tombs are in the northern cemetery. Twelve hundred over six generations yields an average congregation of about 200. De Vaux called a section on the other side of a road on the north side of the cemetery a fourth finger, but it is really part of the main cemetery. “A total of 49 graves have been excavated at Qumran--39 by Roland de Vaux, 9 by Solomon Stekoll and 1 by Charles Clermont-Ganneau. The gender of the skeleton Clermont-Ganneau found is unknown. Stekoll's nine graves, excavated in the main cemetery, yielded the remains of six men, two women, a little girl and a baby of indeterminate gender. Twenty-six of the graves de Vaux excavated in the main cemetery contained the remains of men. In the nine graves he excavated in the northern and eastern extensions of the main cemetery were the remains of one male, six females and a child of uncertain gender. The four graves he excavated in the small southern cemetery held the skeletons of a woman and three juveniles whose gender could not be ascertained” (Zissu 1999: 62, n. 8). Steckoll excavated only one grave which contained a man about 65 years of age. The rest are 35 years or younger. Talmon thinks older people were asked to move because of the hard life here. De Vaux says people here just died younger. Eshel says it is not a large enough sample with only 45 excavated graves. Qumran excavations and cemetery from watchtower

19 Qumran Cave 1 from below Qumran Cave 1 from below

20 Qumran Cave 1 interior Qumran Cave 1 interior

21 Qumran Cave 1 entrance from inside

22 Qumran Cave 1 view of Dead Sea from inside

23 Qumran Cave 3 Qumran Cave 3 Cave 3
Cave 3 is the only cave that has not collapsed. The Copper Scroll was found in this cave. The Copper Scroll was found in 1952 but was not unrolled until The copper was so dry that touching it caused it to break. The Copper Scroll has a list of 63 treasures hidden in the Judean desert and Jerusalem area. The total value of the treasure was appraised at $60 million in 1956. A total of seven groups have searched for the treasure unsuccessfully. Some believe the treasure is fake. Others argue that because the descriptions are so precise the treasure must exist. In a vote of scholars in 1996, most thought that it was real. In a good article in the Israel Museum Journal in 1984, Flusser showed the Essenes were a rich group. The Copper Scroll is now in the Amman Museum. Qumran Cave 3

24 Qumran Cave 4 Qumran Cave 4
This cave was among those looted by the Bedouin during the free afternoons on the days they were in the employ of the Qumran archaeologists. Qumran Cave 4

25 Qumran Caves 4a and 4b Qumran Caves 4a and 4b
No fragments were found in 4B (left), but the Bedouin claimed that some of the fragments that were said to be from 4 (right) were actually from 4B. Qumran Caves 4a and 4b

26 Qumran Cave 4 entrance Qumran Cave 4 entrance
The scrolls demonstrated a very accurate transmission of the OT text. These scrolls predate any existing OT texts by roughly 1,000 years and show how carefully scribes treated the text in the copying process. Qumran Cave 4 entrance

27 Inside Qumran Cave 4 Inside Qumran Cave 4

28 Qumran Cave 5 with ruins in background looking east
This eroded cave was discovered by archaeologists; Bedouin found caves 1, 2, 4, 6, and 11.  It is one of the in the marl terrace which is close to the site of Qumran, along with caves 4, 7, 8, 9, and 10.  Archaeologists estimate that there were originally caves in the marl terrace.  Qumran Cave 5 with ruins in background looking east

29 Qumran Cave 6 with Wadi Qumran in background
This cave was not used for inhabitation, but only for the deposit of scrolls.  This is the most accessible of the Dead Sea Scrolls caves to visitors today. (Follow the aqueduct from Qumran to the hills; it is on the left.) Qumran Cave 6 with Wadi Qumran in background

30 Qumran Cave 8 with roof missing
In Cave 8 were discovered 8QMezuzah, 8QPsalms, 8QPhylactery, 8QGenesis, and 8QHymn. Qumran Cave 8 with roof missing

31 Qumran Cave 8 on left and Cave 7 on right
Everything found in Cave 7 was in Greek.  The cave collapsed shortly after the scrolls were hidden. Qumran Cave 8 on left and Cave 7 on right

32 Qumran Cave 10 on right; Cave 4b on left
Only one ostracon (inscribed potsherd) was found in Cave 10. Qumran Cave 10 on right; Cave 4b on left

33 Qumran Cave 11 Qumran Cave 11 Cave 11
The cave was blocked in 1952, so de Vaux did not find it. The Bedouin found it in 1956 when they knocked on the rock and heard an echo. Cave 11 is where important and complete scrolls were found, including the book of Psalms. Thirty scrolls were found in Cave 11. It was the last cave found with scrolls. In cave 11, the longest and most intriguing scroll, the Temple Scroll, was discovered. The Temple Scroll was held by the antiquities dealer Kando until When Yadin threatened to put him in jail, Kando agreed to sell it "of his own free will" for $110,000. Helpful Sources de Vaux, Roland. 1973 Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Oxford: Oxford University. Zissu, Boaz. 1999 Odd Tomb Out: Has Jerusalem's Essene Cemetery Been Found? Biblical Archaeology Review. 25/2: 50-55, 62. Qumran Cave 11

34 Evidencia interna—términos usados en todo el libro
a.   “el Santo de Israel” (Dios), 12 veces en 1-39 y 14 veces en b.   El ”camino” (Isa. 11:16; 19:23; 35:8; 40:3; 62:10). c.  El “remanente” 10:20-22; 11:11, 16; 28:5; 37:4, 31; 37:32 d.  La justicia en la primera parte (9:7; 11:4; 16:5; 28:6; 32:16; 33:5) y la segunda (42:1, 3-4; 51:5). e.   Paz--11 veces en 1-39 y 15 veces F. Gozo 13 times en 1-39 y 19 veces en

35 Pasajes parecidos en ambas partes
1: :3, 7 1: :4-5 2:3 51:4 10: :4-9 28:5 62:3 29:18 42:7 29:23 60:21 30:26 60:19 33:24 45:25 35:6 41:18

36 Propósito Recordar a los lectores del pacto entre Dios (Yawé, 300 veces) e Israel. Una relación especial Ser bendición a otros. Pacto de Moisés—bendiciones y maldades (Deut ) Pacto con Abraham—poseerán la tierra, y serán establecidos en el reino.

37 Audiencia Dos grupos Su generación, que habían dejado el pacto. Les llamaba otra vez a la santidad y la obediencia. La futura generación que estarían en exilio. Les consolaba con la verdad que Dios iba a restaurar a la nación. Otras naciones

38 Temas y teología Juicio Consuelo Restauración

39 Redención/Salvación—5 actos
Salvación de Judá de la invasión de Asiria. (36–37) 2. Salvación de la nación del cautiverio babilonio. (40) 3. Salvación de la dispersión entre los gentiles. (11–12) 4. Salvación de los pecadores del juicio. (53) 5. Salvación de la creación de las cadenas del pecado. (60, 66)

40 El Mesías Nacimiento de Cristo (7:14; 9:6; Mat. 1:18–25) Ministerio de Juan el Bautista (Isa. 40:1–6; Mat. 3:1ff); Unción a Cristo por el Espíritu (Isa. 61:1–2; Lu 4:17–19); El rechazo del Mesías por la nación (Isa. 6:9–11; Jn 12:38ff); Cristo, la piedra de tropiezo (Isa. 8:14; 28:16; Rom. 9:32–33; 10:11; 1 Pe. 2:6); El ministerio a los gentiles (Isa. 49:6; Lu 2:32; Hch. 13:47); Sufrimiento y muerte (Isa. 52:13–53:12; Hch. 3:13; 8:32–33; 1 Pe 2:21–25); Resurrección (Isa. 55:3; Acts 13:34); Venida para reinar (Isa. 9:6–7; 11:1ff; 59:20–21; 63:1–3; Rom. 11:26–27; Ap. 19:13–15).

41 Pablo lo cita 80 veces. Jesús se lo citó a Pablo en el camino a Damasco Isaiah 42:7 y 16, Hch. 26:16–18). Y cuando le animó en Corinto (Hch. 18:9–10), Isaiah 41:10 y 43:5.

42 Tema: la salvación (rescate) del Señor
Bosquejo Tema: la salvación (rescate) del Señor I. Condenación—(1–39) Sermones contra Judá e Israel (1–12) Cargas de juicio contra los gentiles (13–23) Cantos de gloria futura (24–27) Ayes del juicio venidero de Asiria (28–35) Interludio histórico (36–39) 1. Ezequías entregado de Asiria (36–37) 2. Ezequías engañado por Babilonia (37–38)

43 II. Consolation—(40–66) 1. La grandeza de Dios. (40–48) (El padre contra los ídolos) 2. La gracia de Dios (49–57) (El Hijo, el Siervo de Dios) 3. La gloria de Dios (58–66) (El Espíritu y el reino)

44 Cap. 1 Este capítulo es buen resumen de todo el libro: Condenación y castigo , 28-31 15-17 instrucciones para mejorar vv ª, Oferta de misericordia

45 Forma de reprender aqui es el “juicio de pacto”—Dios es el que trae la acción, Judá el que defiende, y la tierra y los cielos son los testigos. Referencia a los hechos poderosos de Dios en el pacto Cargos de Dios contra ellos Pedido que el castigo cese. Afirmación del amor y cuidado continuo de Dios hacia el pueblo.

46 Otros detalles de Cap. 1 v Lo creado conoce a Dios, pero no su pueblo. Juan 1:10-11 . vv La actitud de rebelión solo les ha traído más castigo y problemas (como el Faraón en Egipto) Contexto de vv. 5, 7-8 es la invasión de Senaquerib a Jerusalén en 701 AC. v. 9 y Rom. 9:29

47 v. 10 comparación con Sodoma y Gomora, generalmente los ejemplos de maldad (Jud. 7, Apoc. 11:8). (pero no tan malos como la gente de Capernaum, Corazin, Betsaida, Mat. 11:23-24) 11-15ª Sacrificios inútiles vv y Col. 2:16-17 vv. 15 y Lucas 18:11-12

48 Cap. 2:1-5 El monte de Dios Gen. 22:13; Num. 10:33; Sal. 24:3; Is. 2:3; Miq. 4:2; Zac. 8:3

49 Jerusalem aerial from east
Knesset Hinnom Valley Kidron Valley Hill of Offense Jerusalem aerial from east

50 Jerusalem aerial from southwest close-up
Kidron Valley Central Valley Hinnom Valley Jerusalem aerial from southwest close-up

51 Mt. Zion aerial from south
Armenian Quarter Dormition Abbey Greek Orthodox Boys’ School Sultan’s Pool Tomb of David/ “Upper Room” Protestant Cemetery Bishop Gobat School (Jerusalem University College) Mt. Zion aerial from south

52 Jerusalem from west panorama
Introduction The model represents the city in 66 A.D., prior to its destruction. This was in essence, “Jerusalem at its peak”, before the Jewish Revolt began. The model is the largest of its kind. Work on it began in the early 1960s, and it was used as a means of study when there was no access to the Old City of Jerusalem, which was controlled by Jordan until Mr. Hans Kroch bought this entire hill where his son was killed, and built the hotel and model here. Michael Avi-Yonah, a leading expert of Second Temple period Jerusalem, designed the general plan. His wife, an artist, supplied the details. The model is built exactly to scale, and has the same drainage problems as the city of Jerusalem. The primary sources for the model are the writings of Josephus and archaeological excavations. Other sources include the Talmud and the New Testament. The scale of the model is 1:50. A human would be represented about 1 2/5 inches high. Model from west panorama

53 Central Valley from south
The Central Valley is also known as the Tyropoean Valley (its Greek name), or as it has been inaccurately translated, the Cheesemaker’s Valley. Today the Arabs call it simply el-Wad, the valley. Central Valley from south

54 Sion Significa "lugar árido", y "fortaleza". 1. La colina sudeste en que Jerusalén se erigió, la primera que menciona el AT como lugar de la ciudad jebusea en tiempos de David y que daría nombre a la población. 2. También el nombre alude de modo comprensivo a toda la ciudad de Jerusalén (Isa. 1:8). 3. Término que acabó por denominarse al monte del templo.

55 4. Otras veces se refiere a la ciudad de Jerusalén en sentido literal y político (Sal. 2:6).
5. También se usa Sion en paralelismos como sinónimo de Jerusalén, la capital religiosa del pueblo de Dios. Sion es el nombre de la ciudad Santa y del pueblo de Dios, según las profecías del futuro glorioso (Isa. 4:3; 60:14). 6. También se identifica en el NT con la Nueva Jerusalén y el reino futuro de Dios (Apoc. 14:1; Heb. 12:22).

56 Significado de esto es que es lugar de festejo, adoración, salvación—y no sólo para Israel, sino para todas las naciones. En un sentido es profecía para el AT, y también para el fin del tiempo.

57 El día del Señor en el AT Is. 2:6-4:1 Is. 13:6, 9; Lam. 2:22; Ez. 7:19, 13:5, 30:3; Joel 1:15; 2:1, 11; 3:14; Amos 5:18, 20; Ab. 15; Sof. 1:7, 8, 14, 18; 2:2-3; Mal. 4:5 Generalmente es un día de castigo, juicio, derrota en guerra, desastre, pérdida, pero no se usa tanto en el sentido del NT.

58 El día del Señor en el NT 1 Cor. 5:5, 2 Cor. 1:14, I Tes. 5:2, 2 Tes
El día del Señor en el NT 1 Cor. 5:5, 2 Cor. 1:14, I Tes. 5:2, 2 Tes. 2:2 (Christou), 2 Ped. 3:10 Los demás son kuriou Parece referirse al día de juicio Solo en Apoc. 1:10 parece ser el día domingo. (Kuriake)

59 Cap. 4:2-6 El Renuevo de Jehová v. 5 El cuadro aquí es como el monte de Sinaí y la salida de Sinaí guiados por Dios, otra vez la idea del monte de Jehová. Nos hace pensar también en Apocalipsis 15:7-8, 16:18

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