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PAU. SAD If you ve been feeling depressed recently, this could be due to (1) the weather. Every winter, a number of people (between 1 to 9 percent of.

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Presentación del tema: "PAU. SAD If you ve been feeling depressed recently, this could be due to (1) the weather. Every winter, a number of people (between 1 to 9 percent of."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 PAU

2 SAD If you ve been feeling depressed recently, this could be due to (1) the weather. Every winter, a number of people (between 1 to 9 percent of the US population) suffer from a condition called Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), also known as winter depression or the winter blues. As days become shorter, many people experience mild winter blues, with symptoms such as fatigue, a desire to eat more, and an increased vulnerability to infection. With the coming (2) of spring, these symptoms disappear. But some people, 70 to 80% of them women, are so affected by the lack of sunlight that they become unable to function. They experience severe *disruptions in eating and sleeping patterns, mood changes, extreme loss (3) of energy and depression. SAD is not a new phenomenon. In the 6th century AD, symptoms of winter depression among Scandinavians were noted (4) by a scholar called Jordanes. Even today, SAD is most commonly found in locations further away from the equator and nearer to the poles – up to 20% of Swedes may be affected. However, SAD was not diagnosed as a medical condition until the mid-1980s. No one is certain what causes the condition, but some researchers believe that SAD is related to a disruption of our internal body clock. This clock controls the secretion of hormones that affect our daily functioning. Without sufficient sunlight, the clock does not reset itself. As a result, we may feel sleepy or hungry at inappropriate times, or suffer from mood changes. Luckily, most sufferers respond to light therapy, which involves exposure to super-bright light bulbs as a supplement (5) to weak winter sun. These may be fitted inside a light-box, which is placed in front of the user, or in the visor of a cap, which is worn by sufferers for half an hour a day. *disruption: the interruption of normal activity

3 due to (1) and because of coming (2) and arrival loss (3) and reduction noted (4) and identified supplement (5) and addition 1. 1 punto/ 0.20 each puntos / 0.75 each 2.1 Symptoms of SAD can range from very mild to completely incapacitating. 2.2 Our internal body clock needs a certain amount of sunlight to reset itself 3. 2 puntos / 0.50 each Se descuenta 0.25x errores graves o reproducción total a)Mild winter blues are experienced by many people when winter begins. b)For some people, the lack of sunlight affects them so much that they are unable to function. c)Our daily functioning is affected by hormones controlled by our internal body clock. d)It is fortunate that light therapy can help most SAD sufferers

4 For many years, my mother (a) suffer ………… (b) winter blues. Every year, she became very …………. (c) and ……………(d) not eat or sleep well. But luckily, her doctor recognised that these were symptoms of SAD and arranged for appropriate treatment. Now, when winter begins, she receives light therapy for half an hour each day and …………………………….(e), she can now function normally throughout the winter ………………… (f) puntos / 0.25 each (a) used to (b) from (c) depressed (d)did / could (e) consequently / as a result (f) months

5 5. 2 puntos People with SAD cannot eat or sleep as they normally do. They have mood swings and feel very tired and depressed. They can be cured with light therapy. 28 words Esta pregunta evalúa el nivel de comprensión del texto. La respuesta está en el texto. Debes utilizar de 25 a 50 palabras y no reproducir palabras ni expresiones. La dificultad no está en localizar la pregunta, sino en responderla adecuadamente. Hay que parafrasear. Recomendaciones: No respondas directamente Yes/No question Nunca respondas específicamente al principio de tu respuesta en caso de ser una Wh- question. Where did Paul go when he finished his lunch? To the pub Para cualquier tipo de pregunta debes comenzar parafraseando la pregunta y contestando a ella. A continuación puedes dar explicaciones o detalles de la misma. Does Jane enjoy exotic places? According to the text, Jane does not like exotic places. (+ explicacion o detalles) Recuerda que NO DEBES REPRODUCIR PALABRAS O EXPRESIONES DEL TEXTO, al menos aquellas que tengan un significado muy específico.

6 Apoya tu explicación en las siguientes expresiones. According to the text/author/writer/ First/ly, Secondly, Furthermore, In addition, Finally, In line three, paragraph two, the writer/author/text/says / remarks / mentions.. An example of this is…. For example, / For instance As the writer remarks/points out in

7 THE WRITING PROCESS The WRITING PROCESS Reason Think of ideas Make a plan Write a draft check Process Why? Reader? Type of text? Structure Opening Paragraphs Conclusion Vocabulary Idioms Expressions Formality Accuracy Grammar Spelling Punctuation Content Logical Coherent Relevant

8 TEXTO DE OPINIÓN Estructura 1er párrafo: Introducción Establece el tema y la opinión de manera clara, sin ningún tipo de razonamiento, eso resérvalo para el desarrollo. 2º párrafo : Desarrollo. apoya tu opinión con hechos, ejemplos, y dando razones. ( Si el texto es largo, cada una de estas ideas debería ir en párrafos diferentes) 3er párrafo: Conclusión Vuelve a expresar tu opinión. Puedes ofrecer una solución al problema planteado. Estrategias Escribe un borrador con las ideas u opiniones que tengas sobre el tema. Diseña tu propia frase de introducción, que te puede servir para casi todas tus composiciones de opinión. Divide tu texto en párrafos, según la estructura requerida. Introduce tus opiniones con expresiones adecuadas, sin caer en la repetición ( I think, I believe, etc) Usa conectores de causa, de consecuencia, contraposición, de añadir información, de orden, de ejemplificación y de conclusión. Opinion essay

9 Do you believe in the theory that aliens built Stonehenge ? Let´s see some examples Many people believe that aliens have influenced our civilization in the past, and they claim that they may have helped us build places like Stonehenge. However, I feel that nobody has proved that, and that´s why I don´t agree with this theory. Con esta frase se establece el tema Conector de contraste, ya que mi opinión es diferente a la que refleja la presentación. Introduzco mi opinión con un conector, y de manera clara

10 Too much importance is given to taking exams at school. Do you agree? Nowadays most teachers use exams to evaluate students´ progress. In my opinion, this is the most effective way to know their pupils´ abilities. Estoy de acuerdo con la frase de presentación y no uso conector de contraposición. También puedo parafrasear la pregunta para establecer el tema: Nowadays too much importance is given to taking exams at school. In my opinion……. O quizás no esté de acuerdo: Nowadays most teachers use exams to evaluate students´ progress. However, I believe this is not the most suitable way to know their pupils´ abilities.

11 CONECTORES Y OTRAS EXPRESIONES ÚTILES EXPRESIONES PARA PRESENTAR TEMAS Nowadays many people hold strong views on this question. However, there are good arguments for and against it (título del tema) - Argumentativo Nowadays many people hold strong views on this question. However, there are many advantages and disadvantages about it (título del tema) - Argumentativo At present many countries are banning smoking in public places. However ther are both advantages and disadvantages about it. - Argumentative It is a well known fact that in some countries people are not allowed to smoke in public places. I think that all goverments should adopt this law. - Opinión It is often said / claimed / asserted that people should not smoke in public places.However I believe that everybody should be allowed to smoke everywhere. - Opinión

12 For the great majority of people people should not smoke in public places. I strongly agree with this because we must respect non-smokers. - Opinion. A problem that is often debated nowadays is that of people smoking in public places. From my point of view, people should not smoke in those places. - Opinion. Todas las presentaciones de opinión pueden ser adaptadas para textos argumentativos, cambiando la opinión personal por la coletilla: However, there are both advantages and disadvantages about it (tema)

13 CONECTORES PARA INTRODUCIR OPINIONES I (personally) think / I do not think that… I (strongly) believe that….. I feel / I don´t feel that……. It seems to me that……… I agree / I do not agree that……..(+ oración) with ….. (+ pronombre/nombre) In my opinion / view From my point of view As I see it As far as I am concerned It is clear to me that In conclusion,… To sum up… In short,..

14 FOR AND AGAINST ESSAYTEXTO ARGUMENTATIVO 1er párrafo: Introducción Establece el tema general de manera impersonal, sin dar tu opinión, y dejando claro que es un tema que tiene ventajas y desventajas; o argumentos a favor y en contra. 2º párrafo : Desarrollo. Sin dar tu opinión, comenta las ventajas y desventajas. Puedes utilizar ejemplos, opiniones de otros, pero siempre de una manera razonada.(Podemos hacer 2 párrafos uno para las ventajas, otro para desventajas) 3er párrafo: Conclusión Comentario concluyente con opinión personal. EstructuraEstrategia s Escribe un borrador con las ventajas y desventajas q encuentres. Busca el equilibrio. Traza también lo que será tu opinión personal. Diseña tu propia frase de introducción, que te puede servir para casi todas tus composiciones argument. Divide tu texto en párrafos, según la estructura requerida. Huye de conclusiones irrelevantes o vacías de contenido. Introduce tu opinión con expresiones adecuadas, sin caer en la repetición ( I think, I believe, etc) Usa conectores de causa, de consecuencia, contraposición, de añadir información, de orden, de ejemplificación y de conclusión. Recuerda que para marcar el paso de las ventajas a las desventajas debemos utilizar un conector de contraposición.

15 o What are the advantages and disadvantages of free public transport? o Should we legalize drugs? Arguments for and against it o What are the arguments for and against banning smoking in public places? Nowadays many people hold strong views about banning smoking in public places. However, there are good arguments for and against. Although many people think smoking in public places should not be allowed, there Are both arguments for and against it. In some countries, people are not allowed to smoke in public places. However, Some people think that goverments should not ban it. There are arguments both Against and in favour of banning smoking in public places. Introducción/ Opening Como podéis observar, en ninguna de ellas se da una opinión personal.

16 Desarrollo/ Body There are several arguments in favour of banning smoking in public places. Firstly, some people claim that they feel more comfortable and healthier if there are not people smoking around them because they do not inhale the smoke of other people´s cigarettes. In addition, children can not see people smoke, which is really positive to prevent children from smoking in the future. On the other hand, some smokers argue that goverments should let people smoke in public areas because they think they are not damaging anybody but themselves. What´s more, they feel that it would be an act of limiting freedom. No se dan opiniones personales, sino argumentos razonados de otras personas que se oyen en nuestra sociedad. Fijaos en los conectores que se usan para introducir argumentos de la misma naturaleza ( Firstly, In addition, What´s more) y aquellos Para introducir argumentos contrarios ( On the other hand )

17 Conclusión / Closing In conclusion, banning smoking cigarettes in public places has advantages and disadvantages. However, I believe that goverments should prohibit smoking in public areas although that means a restriction of our freedom El autor da una opinión clara y coherente sobre el tema. Aquí es donde debes dar tu opinión sin olvidar el conector de conclusión y el de opinión.

18 PETS Question nº 3 a)People can lead a healthier, longer life by having a pet. have a healthier life and live longer by having a pet have health benefits by owning a pet reduce stress if they have a pet improve their health by keeping a pet b) Loyalty and attractive appearance are some characteristics of pets c) In most western countries the two most popular pets have been cats and dogs the most popular pets are cats and dogs the most common/usual pets are cats and dogs d) A high percentage of pet owners with severe heart problems hadn´t died who had critical heart problems, hadn´t died. with critical heart problems, hadn´t died Phrases from the text My phrases

19 PETS Question nº 5 5. According to the text, pets have been proved to be a source of health for their owners. Can you summarize the main facts that support this idea? Step 0 Phrases from the text There appears to be strong evidence that having a pet can help a person lead a longer, healthier life. In a study of 92 people with severe heart problems, within a year, 11 of the 29 without pets had died, but only 3 of the 52 who had pets. A recent study concluded that owning a pet can reduce the risk of a heart attack by 2% and that pets are better than medication in reducing blood pressure.

20 Step 1 Linkers Parafrasear la pregunta Eliminar información repetida Las mismas estructuras con otras palabras According to the information in the text, there are several facts that support the idea that pets have been proved to be a source of health for their owners. Firstly, in a research of 92 subjects with critical health problems, in a year, 11 of the 29 who had not a pet had died. However, only 3 of the 59 who owned pets had died. (a low percentage of pet ownners had died in a year ) Secondly, another review claimed that keeping a pet could decrease the danger of a heart attack by 2%. Finally, the same study also concluded that pets are more efficient than medication in order to reduce blood pressure

21 Step 2 (Advanced) Parafrasear Síntesis/resumen Explicación According to the information in the text, there are several facts that defend the notion that pets have been proved to be a source of health for their owners. Two important studies demonstrate this. Firstly, 56 per cent of pet owners reduce his danger of dying of a heart attack. Secondly, other survey also claimed that keeping a pet could decrease that risk by 2%. Finally, the same research also showed that pets are more efficient than medication in order to reduce blood pressure. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that if you keep a pet, you can improve your health

22 Question nº 6 See For and against essay Nowadays many people strongly agree or disagree on this question. However, there are good arguments for having a pet / against having a pet A problem that is often debated nowadays is that of having a pet


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