2SADIf you’ve been feeling depressed recently, this could be due to (1) the weather. Every winter, a number of people (between 1 to 9 percent of the US population) suffer from a condition called Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), also known as winter depression or the winter blues.As days become shorter, many people experience mild “winter blues”, with symptoms such as fatigue, a desire to eat more, and an increased vulnerability to infection. With the coming (2) of spring, these symptoms disappear. But some people, 70 to 80% of them women, are so affected by the lack of sunlight that they become unable to function. They experience severe *disruptions in eating and sleeping patterns, mood changes, extreme loss (3) of energy and depression.SAD is not a new phenomenon. In the 6th century AD, symptoms of winter depression among Scandinavians were noted (4) by a scholar called Jordanes. Even today, SAD is most commonly found in locations further away from the equator and nearer to the poles – up to 20% of Swedes may be affected. However, SAD was not diagnosed as a medical condition until the mid-1980s.No one is certain what causes the condition, but some researchers believe that SAD is related to a disruption of our internal body clock. This “clock” controls the secretion of hormones that affect our daily functioning. Without sufficient sunlight, the clock does not reset itself. As a result, we may feel sleepy or hungry at inappropriate times, or suffer from mood changes. Luckily, most sufferers respond to light therapy, which involves exposure to super-bright light bulbs as a supplement (5) to weak winter sun. These may be fitted inside a light-box, which is placed in front of the user, or in the visor of a cap, which is worn by sufferers for half an hour a day.*disruption: the interruption of normal activity
31. 1 punto/ 0.20 each 2. 1.5 puntos / 0.75 each due to (1) and because ofcoming (2) and arrivalloss (3) and reductionnoted (4) and identifiedsupplement (5) and additionpuntos / 0.75 each2.1 Symptoms of SAD can range from very mild to completely incapacitating.2.2 Our internal body clock needs a certain amount of sunlight to reset itselfpuntos / 0.50 each Se descuenta 0.25x errores graves o reproducción totala) Mild “winter blues” are experienced by many people when winter begins.b) For some people, the lack of sunlight affects them so much that they are unable to function.c) Our daily functioning is affected by hormones controlled by our internal body clock.d) It is fortunate that light therapy can help most SAD sufferers
4puntos / 0.25 eachFor many years, my mother (a) suffer ………… (b) winter blues. Every year, she became very …………. (c) and ……………(d) not eat or sleep well. But luckily, her doctor recognised that these were symptoms of SAD and arranged for appropriate treatment. Now, when winter begins, she receives light therapy for half an hour each day and …………………………….(e), she can now function normally throughout the winter ………………… (f).(a) used to(b) from(c) depressed(d)did / could(e) consequently / as a result(f) months
5puntos28 wordsPeople with SAD cannot eat or sleep as they normally do. They have mood swings and feel very tired and depressed. They can be cured with light therapy.Esta pregunta evalúa el nivel de comprensión del texto.La respuesta está en el texto. Debes utilizar de 25 a 50 palabras y no reproducirpalabras ni expresiones. La dificultad no está en localizar la pregunta, sino enresponderla adecuadamente. Hay que parafrasear.Recomendaciones:No respondas directamente Yes/No questionNunca respondas específicamente al principio de tu respuesta en caso de seruna Wh- question.Where did Paul go when he finished his lunch? To the pubPara cualquier tipo de pregunta debes comenzar parafraseando la pregunta ycontestando a ella. A continuación puedes dar explicaciones o detalles dela misma.Does Jane enjoy exotic places?According to the text, Jane does not like exotic places. (+ explicacion odetalles)Recuerda que NO DEBES REPRODUCIR PALABRAS O EXPRESIONESDEL TEXTO, al menos aquellas que tengan un significado muy específico.
6Apoya tu explicación en las siguientes expresiones. According to the text/author/writer/First/ly ,Secondly,Furthermore,In addition,Finally,In line three, paragraph two, the writer/author/text/says / remarks /mentions..An example of this is….For example, / For instanceAs the writer remarks/points out in
7THE WRITING PROCESS Content Process Structure Accuracy Vocabulary ReasonThink of ideasMake a planWrite a draftcheckContentLogicalCoherentRelevantProcessWhy?Reader?Type of text?The WRITINGPROCESSStructureOpeningParagraphsConclusionAccuracyGrammarSpellingPunctuationVocabularyIdiomsExpressionsFormality
8TEXTO DE OPINIÓN Opinion essay Estructura Estrategias 1er párrafo: IntroducciónEstablece el tema y la opiniónde manera clara, sin ningúntipo de razonamiento, esoresérvalo para el desarrollo.2º párrafo : Desarrollo.apoya tu opinión con hechos,ejemplos, y dando razones.( Si el texto es largo, cadauna de estas ideas deberíair en párrafos diferentes)3er párrafo: ConclusiónVuelve a expresar tu opinión.Puedes ofrecer una soluciónal problema planteado.Escribe un borrador con las ideas uopiniones que tengas sobre el tema.Diseña tu propia frase de introducción,que te puede servir para casi todas tuscomposiciones de opinión.Divide tu texto en párrafos, según laestructura requerida.Introduce tus opiniones con expresionesadecuadas, sin caer en la repetición( I think, I believe, etc)Usa conectores de causa,de consecuencia, contraposición,de añadir información, de orden,de ejemplificación y de conclusión.
9Do you believe in the theory that aliens built Stonehenge? Let´s see some examplesDo you believe in the theory that aliens built Stonehenge?Many people believe that aliens have influenced our civilization in thepast, and they claim that they may have helped us build places likeStonehenge. However, I feel that nobody has proved that, and that´swhy I don´t agree with this theory.Introduzco mi opinióncon un conector, yde manera claraCon esta frasese estableceel temaConector de contraste,ya que mi opinión esdiferente a la que reflejala presentación.
10Too much importance is given to taking exams at school. Do you agree? Nowadays most teachers use exams to evaluate students´ progress. In myopinion, this is the most effective way to know their pupils´ abilities.Estoy de acuerdo con la frase de presentación y no uso conector de contraposición.También puedo parafrasear la pregunta para establecer el tema:Nowadays too much importance is given to taking exams at school.In my opinion…….O quizás no esté de acuerdo:Nowadays most teachers use exams to evaluate students´ progress.However , I believe this is not the most suitable way to know theirpupils´ abilities.
11CONECTORES Y OTRAS EXPRESIONES ÚTILES EXPRESIONES PARA PRESENTAR TEMASNowadays many people hold strong views on this question. However,there are good arguments for and against it (título del tema)- ArgumentativoNowadays many people hold strong views on this question. However,there are many advantages and disadvantages about it (título del tema)- ArgumentativoAt present many countries are banning smoking in public places. Howeverther are both advantages and disadvantages about it. - ArgumentativeIt is a well known fact that in some countries people are not allowed tosmoke in public places. I think that all goverments should adopt this law.- OpiniónIt is often said / claimed / asserted that people should not smokein public places.However I believe that everybody should be allowed tosmoke everywhere. - Opinión
12For the great majority of people people should not smoke in public places. I strongly agree with this because we must respect non-smokers.- Opinion.A problem that is often debated nowadays is that of people smoking inpublic places. From my point of view, people should not smoke in thoseplaces. - Opinion.Todas las presentaciones de opinión pueden ser adaptadas para textosargumentativos, cambiando la opinión personal por la coletilla:However, there are both advantages and disadvantages about it (tema)
13CONECTORES PARA INTRODUCIR OPINIONES I (personally) think / I do not think that…I (strongly) believe that…..I feel / I don´t feel that…….It seems to me that………I agree / I do not agree that……..(+ oración)with ….. (+ pronombre/nombre)In my opinion / viewFrom my point of viewAs I see itAs far as I am concernedIt is clear to me thatIn conclusion,…To sum up…In short,..
14TEXTO ARGUMENTATIVO FOR AND AGAINST ESSAY Estructura Estrategias 1er párrafo: IntroducciónEstablece el tema generalde manera impersonal, sin dartu opinión, y dejando claro quees un tema que tiene ventajas ydesventajas; o argumentos afavor y en contra.2º párrafo : Desarrollo.Sin dar tu opinión, comenta lasventajas y desventajas. Puedesutilizar ejemplos, opiniones deotros, pero siempre de una manera razonada.(Podemos hacer 2 párrafos uno para las ventajas, otro para desventajas)3er párrafo: ConclusiónComentario concluyente con opinión personal.Escribe un borrador con las ventajas y desventajas q encuentres. Busca el equilibrio. Traza también lo que será tu opinión personal.Diseña tu propia frase de introducción, que te puede servir para casi todas tus composiciones argument.Divide tu texto en párrafos, según laestructura requerida.Huye de conclusiones irrelevantes o vacías de contenido.Introduce tu opinión con expresionesadecuadas, sin caer en la repetición( I think, I believe, etc)Usa conectores de causa,de consecuencia, contraposición,de añadir información, de orden,de ejemplificación y de conclusión. Recuerda que para marcar el paso de las ventajas a las desventajas debemos utilizar un conector de contraposición.
15Como podéis observar, en ninguna de ellas se da una opinión personal. What are the advantages and disadvantages of free public transport?Should we legalize drugs? Arguments for and against itWhat are the arguments for and against banning smoking in public places?Introducción/ OpeningNowadays many people hold strong views about banning smoking in public places.However, there are good arguments for and against.Although many people think smoking in public places should not be allowed, thereAre both arguments for and against it.In some countries, people are not allowed to smoke in public places. However,Some people think that goverments should not ban it. There are arguments bothAgainst and in favour of banning smoking in public places.Como podéis observar, en ninguna de ellas se da una opinión personal.
16Para introducir argumentos contrarios (On the other hand) Desarrollo/ BodyThere are several arguments in favour of banning smoking in public places.Firstly, some people claim that they feel more comfortable and healthier if thereare not people smoking around them because they do not inhale the smoke ofother people´s cigarettes. In addition, children can not see people smoke, whichis really positive to prevent children from smoking in the future. On the otherhand, some smokers argue that goverments should let people smoke in publicareas because they think they are not damaging anybody but themselves. What´smore, they feel that it would be an act of limiting freedom.No se dan opiniones personales, sino argumentos razonados de otras personas que se oyen en nuestra sociedad. Fijaos en los conectores que se usan para introducir argumentos de la misma naturaleza (Firstly, In addition, What´s more) y aquellosPara introducir argumentos contrarios (On the other hand)
17Conclusión / ClosingIn conclusion, banning smoking cigarettes in public places has advantages anddisadvantages . However, I believe that goverments should prohibit smokingin public areas although that means a restriction of our freedomEl autor da una opinión clara y coherente sobre el tema. Aquí es donde debes dar tu opinión sin olvidar el conector de conclusión y el de opinión.
18Question nº 3 PETS Phrases from the text My phrases People can lead a healthier, longer life by having a pet.have a healthier life and live longer by having a pethave health benefits by owning a petreduce stress if they have a petimprove their health by keeping a petb) Loyalty and attractive appearance are some characteristics of petsc) In most western countries the two most popular pets have been catsand dogsthe most popular pets are cats and dogsthe most common/usual pets are cats and dogsd) A high percentage of pet owners with severe heart problems hadn´t diedwho had critical heart problems, hadn´tdied.with critical heart problems, hadn´t died
19PETSQuestion nº 55. According to the text, pets have been proved to be a source of healthfor their owners. Can you summarize the main facts that supportthis idea?Step 0Phrases from the text“ There appears to be strong evidence that having a pet can helpa person lead a longer, healthier life. In a study of 92 peoplewith severe heart problems, within a year, 11 of the 29 withoutpets had died, but only 3 of the 52 who had pets. A recent studyconcluded that owning a pet can reduce the risk of a heart attackby 2% and that pets are better than medication in reducing bloodpressure.
20Step 1LinkersParafrasear la preguntaEliminar información repetidaLas mismas estructuras con otras palabrasAccording to the information in the text, there are several facts thatsupport the idea that pets have been proved to be a source of healthfor their owners. Firstly, in a research of 92 subjects with critical healthproblems, in a year, 11 of the 29 who had not a pet had died. However,only 3 of the 59 who owned pets had died. (a low percentage of petownners had died in a year ) Secondly, another review claimed that keepinga pet could decrease the danger of a heart attack by 2%. Finally, the samestudy also concluded that pets are more efficient than medication in order to reduce blood pressure
21Step 2 (Advanced)ParafrasearSíntesis/resumenExplicaciónAccording to the information in the text, there are several facts thatdefend the notion that pets have been proved to be a source of health fortheir owners. Two important studies demonstrate this. Firstly, 56 per centof pet owners reduce his danger of dying of a heart attack. Secondly,other survey also claimed that keeping a pet could decrease that risk by 2%.Finally, the same research also showed that pets are more efficient thanmedication in order to reduce blood pressure. Therefore, it has beendemonstrated that if you keep a pet, you can improve your health
22Question nº 6 See “For and against essay” Nowadays many people strongly agree or disagree on this question.However, there are good arguments for having a pet /against having a petA problem that is often debated nowadays is that of having a pet