Presentación del tema: "Grammar from the start November 2012 Dr Rachel Hawkes."— Transcripción de la presentación:
1Grammar from the startNovember 2012Dr Rachel Hawkes
2Grammar: skill or knowledge? IntroductionThis is not a dichotomy I admit> It is meant to hint at doing rather than just knowing, action rather than theory, be active rather than passiveSkill is often thought of as the ability to do something, often resulting from sustained practice and commitmentOf course doing something well requires the knowledge ‘how’ not just the knowledge ‘that’, so knowledge is fully implicated in skill development and skill development requires knowledge.They must combine though. One without the other is not effective. Knowing verb endings but never using them to making meaning for example, will mean that they fossilize – the knowledge may be retained even in long-term memory but without serving any useful purpose, if cut off from meaning making. Equally you can practise and practise sentences and get good at them, but if you don’t understand how to put together your own new sentences, the incentive to use language will be eroded. All human beings want to make their own meanings.
3Key language skills – knowing how 1 Sound/meaning2 Visual/meaningMemory3 Spelling (core language words only)1 repeat correctly4 (improved) speed of recallPronunciation2 retain pronunciation1 say whole sentences from visual prompts3 pronounce accurately from textInfer/guess meaning from key words/cognates and known languageSentence building2 adapt sentences to make new meaningsComprehension3 Use key verbs to build new sentences
4Skills and knowledge both Present tense verb endings OR the relationship between an infinitive verb, pronouns and endings when describing current actionsHow to pronounce 10 animals OR how to pronounce the key sounds of the language and how these are writtenA vocabulary of 200 nouns OR a vocabulary of 30 verbs, the pronouns, conjugations of key irregular verbs, opinion phrases, expressions of time and frequency, key past and future constructions and essential modals
5Life cycle of a plant Hier is een zaad De wortel groeit Na de stam, de bladeren groeienNa de bladeren, de bloem groeitNa de bloem, de vrucht groeitDe vrucht geeft ons de zaden
6Life cycle of a plant Hier is een zaad De wortel groeit Na de wortel, de stam groeitNa de stam, de bladeren groeienNa de bladeren, de bloem groeitNa de bloem, de vrucht groeitDe vrucht geeft ons de zaden
8Dictionary definitions gram·mar (grmr)n.1. a. The study of how words and their component parts combine to form sentences.b. The study of structural relationships in language or in a language, sometimes including pronunciation, meaning, and linguistic history.2. a. The system of inflections, syntax, and word formation of a language.b. The system of rules implicit in a language, viewed as a mechanism for generating all sentences possible in that language.3. a. A normative or prescriptive set of rules setting forth the current standard of usage for pedagogical or reference purposes.b. Writing or speech judged with regard to such a set of rules.4. A book containing the morphologic, syntactic, and semantic rules for a specific language.5. a. The basic principles of an area of knowledge: the grammar of music.b. A book dealing with such principles.
9“An ounce of action is worth a ton of theory.” Friedrich Engels A working definitiongram·mar (grmr)n.How to combine words to make meaning in sentences.letters and^“An ounce of action is worth a ton of theory.” Friedrich Engels
10Making the sound-writing connection PhonicsMaking the sound-writing connection
11las vocalesPupils will learn how to pronounce the vowel sounds in Spanish. ‘las vocales’ = the vowels.Click on words to hear them pronounced in this presentation.By the end of this lesson pupils should be able to attempt to fill the vowels into Spanish words they hear pronounced.
12Link to the full resource on TESAudiovisual presentation of the ‘vocales’ (vowels) song. (Click on the grey square to activate.) Pupils should listen to this and begin to join in. It’s important that pupils are able to accurately pronounce the vowels as these are constant in Spanish pronunciation.Full resource created by Leepy on TES, incorporating phonics by Rachel Hawkes.
13aPupils should pronounce the vowel first and then the word, learning to trust that producing the same vowel sound will allow them to pronounce the word accurately. Click on vowel and the written word to hear them pronounced. It is helpful to do an action as the word is pronounced to give pupils a physical trigger/hook to remember the word later. Click on the video box (top left) to see a suggested action which beats out the number of syllables the word contains. This should also encourage pupils to divide words into syllables as a coping mechanism in their learning. araña = spideraraña
14eInstructions as per slide 3. elefante = elephantelefante
16oInstructions as per slide 3. olvidar = to forgetolvidar
17uInstructions as per slide 3. universo = universeuniverso
18aeiouPointing at the vowels and asking pupils to produce them out of sequence, building up speed, forces pupils to produce the sounds quickly, accurately and automatically.
19ba be bi bo bu fa fe fi fo fu la le li lo lu ma me mi mo mu Pupils should imagine how these syllable sounds will be pronounced in Spanish (by slotting in the vowel sounds they already know). These is designed to reinforce the fact that their knowledge of English will at times be helpful in their Spanish learning. The b, f, l, m, p, t are all pronounced as they are in English.pa pe pi po puta te ti to tu
20Link to the full resource on TESFull resource created by Leepy on TES, incorporating phonics by Rachel Hawkes.
211 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 idea araña elefante olvidar universocerdociclistacasaLayering memory of the key phonics sounds – iconic word, image, gesture to represent each key sound, chosen for its difference to English pronunciation.cochecucarachagimnasiahamburguesaEspañazumoguitarrallave21
22La pequeña araña subió, subió, subió vino la lluvia y se la llevó La pequeña araña subió, subió, subió vino la lluvia y se la llevó. Salió el sol y todo lo secó y la pequeña araña subió, subió, subió.Songs embed language better than almost anything else.
24pito pito corgorito ¿dónde vas tú tan bonito pito pito corgorito ¿dónde vas tú tan bonito? a la era verdadera pin pon fu e ra tú te vas y tú te quedas.Spanish equivalent of “eeny meeny miny mo”
25For the full phonics cards resource, created by Leepy, go to:
26niño niña araña piña señor señora España You can project these slides on the board and run through pronunciation & meaning first if you feel this will benefit the pupils & give them more confidence. These slides are designed as cards which will (when photocopied double-sided and cut up) have the phonic on one side and a corresponding word & picture on the other. Pupils should pronounce the phonic first and then incorporate it into their pronunciation of the word on the other side, recognising the meaning in English at the same time. Pupils could play snap/happy families etc. by using the cards picture-side up, recognising when the phonic is the same and checking on the other side of the card.The vocabulary translates as: Young boy, young girl, spider, pineappleMan, woman, Spain, birthdayseñorseñoraEspañacumpleaños
30Escucha el mambo de las sílabas Pues con ello te diré Según el número de sílabasLas palabras pueden serSi tienen una sílaba - monosílabasSi tienen dos - bisílabasSi tienen tres - trisílabasSi más de tres - polisílabasDime una monosílaba – solDime ahora una bisílaba – bombónAhora dime una trisílaba – corazónDime una polisílaba – ordenadorDos sílabas que llevan - lapa y patoDos sílabas - el tigre, perro y leónTres sílabas - araña y macacoTres sílabas - borrico y una escorpiónY cuatro que lleva orangutánY muchas que lleva la palabra superfantasticularHere are the lyrics on one sheet for teachers & pupils.
31Full lesson resource by Leepy on TES.Our first real song! The lyrics are all about words and syllables – tuneful & educational It reinforces the idea of breaking words down into syllables, highlighting words or one, two, three or more syllables.Singing is a great way to get the pupils to practise en masse, get comfortable with speaking a little faster, not worry about forgetting the odd word or two, and to have fun. I’ve added the graphics to support understanding and make learning more explicit.
32ta riz ma es lla ca ro gar re de pal da di no bra o na pie be do gan 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.tarizmaesllacarogarredepaldadinobraonapiebedogantojaszazogopierPupils will hear a Spanish word and must spell it accurately either by searching for the syllables they hear in the syllable square or by predicting how they think it will be spelled and then checking in the syllable square. You can either click on the yellow speaker to hear each word being pronounced and broken up into syllables or pronounce the words yourselves.
33ta riz ma es lla ca ro gar re de pal da di no bra o na pie be do gan 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.gargantatarizmaesllacarogarredepaldadinobraonapiebedogantojaszazogopiercabezaespaldamanopiernarodillanarizorejasAnswers appear one by one. Click on yellow speakers to hear the words again if need be.estómagobrazodedopie
34Escucha bien y elige el artículo apropiado. 1ABC2ABC3ABCMaking full use of cognates is possible once the sound-writing links are in place.Teacher reads out 1 of the 3 items (cognates) and students choose the correct picture elefante, jirafa , leon, 2. chocolate, te, café 3. autobus, coche, bicicleta, 4. gris, blanco, rosa4ABC
35Don Glotón Don Tontainas Don Feliz Don Curioso Don Alreves Don CosquillasDon PupasDon LiosoThings pupils enjoy pronouncing – applying their phonics knowledge.Don InteligenteDon PequeñoDon VagoDon Quisquilloso
36Progression: a Y3 sequence Year 3 Term 1 Year 3 pupils start with the phonics, learning the vowels first and then other key sounds. They practise these using a variety of activities. They read rhyming stories, sing songs, practise tongue twisters, play games and have further opportunities to make the sound-written link by listening to words and anticipating their spelling. Year 3 Term 2 In this term pupils learn some nouns (pencil case and classroom items). They are made aware of gender through colour coding. They use the verb forms ‘tengo – I have’, ‘es – it is’ and implicitly encountered the negative forms of these.
37Year 3 Term 3 The theme is animals and colours Year 3 Term 3 The theme is animals and colours. The linguistic focus is gender, articles (definite & indefinite), plurals and adjectives (position & basic agreement). The grammatical concepts are all based embedded in a core vocabulary of 9 animal nouns and 6 colours so nothing so becomes too difficult. The key verbs are ‘es’ (he/she/it is), ‘son’ (they are), hay (there is/are). The negative is revisited and there is also a subtle introduction to ‘también’ (also/too/as well), ‘pero’ (but). Pupils are encouraged at all times to strive to work things out for themselves, work in pairs and small groups sharing knowledge, and to speak aloud when possible – thereby building confidence. Pronunciation, memory, pattern finding, sentence building, autonomy, performance and creativity are the concepts at the heart of these resources.
38The sounds of French Par exemple: OU douze les couleurs rouge Almost all the French phonemes are contained in the French words for animals, colours and the numbers 1-20.Par exemple: OUdouzeles couleursrougeune souris
39Il est né le divin enfant Jouez hautbois, résonnez musettes Joyeux Noël!Il est né le divin enfantJouez hautbois, résonnez musettesChantons tous son avènement
40En France on aime les bonbons! On a des grands bonbons. Nous aimons les bonbons!Allons et trouvons des bonbons!En France on porte des pantalons!On porte des grands pantalons.Nous aimons les pantalons .Allons et trouvons les pantalons!
41Working with FrenchIn groups of two/three, brainstorm the key language you would want to cover in Y3.What are the key phonic sounds in them?Categorise by key phonic link.Think of any songs, rhymes, tongue twisters that you could use to practise those sounds.Would you want to choose a set of key phonics to teach, as for Spanish, or with French is it better to highlight the key sounds one by one as you meet them?