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Study Guide Spanish 1 Fall Semester Practice questions Vocab lists and practice questions can be found at:

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Presentación del tema: "Study Guide Spanish 1 Fall Semester Practice questions Vocab lists and practice questions can be found at:"— Transcripción de la presentación:

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2 Study Guide Spanish 1 Fall Semester

3 Practice questions Vocab lists and practice questions can be found at: /program_page.html /program_page.html Select Realidades 1 (Purple) book

4 Review Part 1 of 3 Part 1 covers Para Empezar and Unit 1.

5 Infinitives P. 32 Realidades 1

6 Infinitives Verbs are words that are most often used to name actions. Verbs in English have different forms depending on who is doing the action or when the action is occurring: I walk, she walks, we walked, etc.

7 Infinitives The most basic form of a verb is called the INFINITIVE. In English, you can spot infinitives because they always have the word TO in front of them: to swim, to read, to write

8 Infinitives Infinitives in Spanish, though, dont have a separate word like to in front of them. Spanish infinitives are only one word, and always end in -ar, -er, or -ir: Nadar Leer Escribir

9 Negatives P. 36 Realidades 1

10 Negatives To make a sentence negative in Spanish, you usually put no in front of the verb or expression. In English you usually use the word not. No me gusta cantar. I do not like to sing.

11 Negatives To answer a question negatively, in Spanish you often use no twice. The first no answers the question. The second no says, I do not … (dont).

12 Negatives This is similar to the way you answer a question in English. ¿Te gusta escribir cuentos? Do you like to write stories? No, no me gusta. No, I dont.

13 Negatives In Spanish, you might use one or more negatives after answering no. ¿Te gusta cantar? Do you like to sing? No, no me gusta nada. No, I dont like it at all.

14 Negatives If you want to say that you do not like either of two choices, use ni…ni: No me gusta ni nadar ni dibujar. I dont like either swimming or drawing. I like neither swimming nor drawing.

15 Adjectives P. 55 Realidades 1

16 Adjectives Words that describe people and things are called adjectives (adjetivos). In Spanish, most adjectives have both masculine and feminine forms. The masculine form usually ends in the letter -o and the feminine form usually ends in the letter -a.

17 Adjectives Masculine adjectives are used to describe masculine nouns. Marcos es ordenado y simpatico. Marcos is organized and nice.

18 Adjectives Feminine adjectives are used to describe feminine nouns. Marta es ordenada y simpática. Marta is organized and nice.

19 Adjectives Adjectives that end in -e describe both masculine and feminine nouns. Take a look

20 Adjectives Anita es inteligente. Anita is smart. Pedro es inteligente también. Pedro is also smart.

21 Adjectives Masculine ordenado trabajador paciente deportista Feminine ordenada traqbajadora paciente deportista

22 Adjectives When an adjective ends in -or, an -a is added to describe a feminine noun. Juan es trabajador. Luz es trabajadora

23 Adjectives Some adjectives that end in -a, such as deportista, describe both masculine and feminine nouns. You will need to learn which adjectives follow this pattern.

24 Adjectives Tomás es deportista. Tomás is sports-minded. Marta es deportista también. Marta is also sports- minded.

25 Definite and Indefinite Articles P. 60 Realidades 1

26 Definite Articles El, La, Los and Las are called definite articles.

27 Definite Articles In English they mean the

28 Definite Articles We use El and Los with masculine nouns and La and Las with feminine nouns.

29 Indefinite Articles Un, Una, Unos, and Unas are indefinite articles.

30 Indefinite Articles Un and Una mean a or an in English.

31 Indefinite Articles Unos and Unas mean some in English.

32 Indefinite Articles Un and Unos are masculine and Una and Unas are feminine.

33 Word Order: Placement of Adjectives P. 62 Realidades 1

34 Placement of Adjectives In Spanish, adjectives usually come after the noun they describe. Margarita es una chica artistica. nounadjective

35 Placement of Adjectives In English sentences the adjective comes before the noun, but in Spanish adjectives mostly come after the noun. Memorize this pattern

36 Placement of Adjectives Subject + Verb + Noun + Adjective Margarita es una chica muy artistica. Pablo es un estudiante inteligente. La Sra. Ortiz es una profesora muy buena.

37 Review Part 2 of 3 Unidad 2

38 Subject Pronouns P. 82 Realidades 1

39 Subject Pronouns The subject of a sentence tells who is doing the action. You often use peoples names as the subject: Gregorio escucha música. Ana canta y baila.

40 Subject Pronouns You also use subject pronouns (I, you, he, she, we, they) to tell who is doing an action. The subject pronouns replace peoples names. Here are all the subject pronouns.

41 Subject Pronouns (Singular) Yo Tú Usted (Ud.) Él Ella I You (informal) You (formal) He She

42 Subject Pronouns (Plural) Nosotros Nosotras Vosotros Vosotras Ustedes (Uds.) Ellos Ellas We (males) We (females) You All (informal) You All (formal) They (males) They (females)

43 Subject Pronouns Tú, usted, ustedes, and vosotros(as) all mean you. Use tú with family, friends, people your age or younger, and anyone you call by his or her first name.

44 Subject Pronouns Use usted with adults you address with a title, such as señor, señora, profesor(a), etc. Usted is usually written as Ud.

45 Subject Pronouns In Latin America, use ustedes when speaking to two or more people, regardless of age. Ustedes is usually written as Uds.

46 Subject Pronouns In Spain, use vosotros(as) when speaking to two or more people you call tú individually: Tú + tú = vosotros(as) Use ustedes when talking to two or more people you call usted individually.

47 Subject Pronouns If a group is made up of males only or of both males and females together, use the masculine forms: nosotros, vosotros, ellos.

48 Subject Pronouns You can combine a subject pronoun and a name to form a subject.

49 Subject Pronouns Alejandro y yo = nosotros Carlos y ella = ellos Pepe y tú = ustedes Lola y ella = ellas

50 Present Tense of - ar Verbs P. 84 Realidades 1

51 VERBS A verb usually names the action in a sentence. We call the verb that ends in -r the INFINITIVE

52 VERBS The INFINITIVE is the form you would find in a Spanish dictionary. In English it means to + (verb)

53 These are some INFINITIVES you already know: Enseñar Estudiar Hablar Bailar Cantar Dibujar Escuchar n Esquiar n Jugar n Montar n Nadar n Pasar tiempo n Patinar n And several more!

54 IN SPANISH: The last letter or letters of the verb tell you who does the action.

55 IN SPANISH: To change an INFINITIVE to a form that tells who is doing the action, remove the -ar and add the appropriate ending.

56 IN SPANISH: This action is called CONJUGATION

57 TO STUDY (English) Istudy Youstudy He Shestudies it Westudy Theystudy

58 ESTUDIAR (Spanish) Yoestudio Túestudias Ud. Élestudia Ella Nosotros estudiamos Nosotras Vosotros estudáis Vosotras Uds. Ellos estudian Ellas

59 STEM / ENDING For every INFINITIVE in Spanish there is a STEM and an ENDING.

60 STEM / ENDING For example, for estudiar,…estudi is the stem. ar is the ending.

61 STEM / ENDING So, the endings for -ar verbs are: o, as, a, amos, áis, an

62 THE VOSOTROS Verb forms ending in áis, such as estudiáis, are used mainly in the country of Spain only.

63 Lets CONJUGATE Some more -ar verbs!

64 TOCAR Yotoco Tútocas Ud. Éltoca Ella Nosotros tocamos nosotras Vosotros tocáis vosotras Uds. Ellos tocan Ellas

65 Enseñar Yoenseño Túenseñas Ud. Élenseña Ella Nosotros enseñamos Vosotros enseñáis Uds. Ellos enseñan Ellas

66 NEGATING A SENTENCE When you want to say that you do not do something, use no before the verb form

67 NEGATING A SENTENCE Yo no cocino en la clase de educación física.

68 ASKING A QUESTION When we ask a question in Spanish, we usually put the subject after the verb or sometimes at the end of the sentence.

69 ASKING A QUESTION Cocina Juan en la clase de ciencias? Estudia mucho Paulina? Verb Subject

70 Page 107 Realidades 1 ESTAR

71 The Verb Estar Estar is an IRREGULAR verb. It means to be in English.

72 The Verb ESTAR It does NOT follow the pattern of REGULAR -AR VERBS.

73 The Verb ESTAR In writing, be sure to use the accent mark on all forms except the yo and nosotros forms.

74 TO BE (In English) Iam Youare He Sheis It Weare Theyare

75 ESTAR Yoestoy Túestás Ud. Élestá Ella Nosotros estamos Uds. Ellos están Ellas

76 USE OF ESTAR Estar is used to tell location of a person or a thing.

77 USE OF ESTAR For example: El libro está en la mesa. The book is on the table.

78 USE OF ESTAR Maria y Carlos están en clase. Maria and Carlos are in class.

79 USE OF ESTAR Estar is also used to tell the condition of something or someone.

80 USE OF ESTAR For example: Maria está enferma. Maria is sick.

81 USE OF ESTAR Elisa y tú están ocupados. Elisa and you are busy.

82 Page 110 Realidades 1 Nouns

83 NOUNS Nouns refer to people, animals, places, and things.

84 NOUNS In Spanish, nouns have gender. They are either masculine or feminine.

85 Masculine / Feminine Most nouns that end in -o are masculine.

86 Masculine / Feminine Most nouns that end in -a are feminine.

87 Masculine / Feminine For example: el libro la calculadora An exception: el día

88 Other Spanish Nouns Other Spanish nouns end in -e or a consonant.

89 Other Spanish Nouns For example: el cine el marcador la clase la televisión

90 Other Spanish Nouns Some can be both masculine and feminine: el/la estudiante

91 Making Nouns Plural To make nouns plural you usually add -s to words ending in a vowel and -es to words ending in a consonant. sillasillas tecladoteclados cartelcarteles

92 Making Nouns Plural Singular nouns that end in z change the z to c in the plural. El lápizlos lápices

93 Definite Articles El, La, Los and Las are called definite articles. In English they mean the

94 Definite Articles We use El and Los with masculine nouns and La and Las with feminine nouns.

95 Indefinite Articles Un, Una, Unos, and Unas are indefinite articles.

96 Indefinite Articles Un and Una mean a or an in English.

97 Indefinite Articles Unos and Unas mean some in English.

98 Indefinite Articles Un and Unos are masculine and Una and Unas are feminine.

99 Its a good idea to learn a noun with its definite article, el or la, because that will usually tell you the gender.

100 Review Part 3 of 3 Chapter 3a

101 COMER Yocomo Túcomes Ud. Élcome Ella Nosotros comemos Vosotros coméis Uds. Ellos comen Ellas

102 BEBER Yobebo Túbebes Ud. Élbebe Ella Nosotros bebemos Vosotros bebéis Uds. Ellos beben Ellas

103 LEER Yoleo Túlees Ud. Éllee Ella Nosotros leemos Vosotros leéis Uds. Ellosleen Ellas

104 To SEE or To WATCH I see Yousee He Shesees It We see They see

105 VER Yoveo Túves Ud. Élve Ella Nosotrosvemos Vosotros veís Uds. Ellosven Ellas

106 TO SHARE Ishare Youshare He Sheshares It Weshare Theyshare

107 COMPARTIR Yo comparto Tú compartes Ud. Él comparte Ella Nosotros compartimos Vosotros compartís Uds. Ellos comparten Ellas

108 Me gustan, me encantan P. 135 Realidades 1

109 Me gustan, Me encantan Use me gusta and me encanta to talk about a singular noun. Me gusta el té pero me encanta el té helado.

110 Me gustan, Me encantan Use me gustan and me encantan to talk about plural nouns. Me encantan las fresas pero no me gustan mucho los plátanos.

111 Me gustan, Me encantan When you use me gusta(n) and me encanta(n) to talk about a noun, include el, la, los, or las.

112 Me gustan, Me encantan Me encanta el jugo de naranja pero no me gusta la leche. ¿Qué te gustan más, las hamburguesas o los perritos calientes?


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