La descarga está en progreso. Por favor, espere

La descarga está en progreso. Por favor, espere

International Conference Low-cost, electricity generating heat engines for rural areas University of Nottingham, 2 April 2012 Integrated planning of sustainable.

Presentaciones similares


Presentación del tema: "International Conference Low-cost, electricity generating heat engines for rural areas University of Nottingham, 2 April 2012 Integrated planning of sustainable."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 International Conference Low-cost, electricity generating heat engines for rural areas University of Nottingham, 2 April 2012 Integrated planning of sustainable electricity services based on small scale biomass gasification systems for Multi Functional Platforms in rural communities in Ghana Pol Arranz-Piera, Ishmael Edjekhumene, Clement Nartey, Lawrence Darkwah, Enrique Velo

2 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 2 2

3 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 3 3 Motivation: Electricity access in SSA The MFP initiative in Ghana Strategic planning principles for sustainable decentralised rural electrification Progress of its application to small scale biomass-to-electricity systems introduction in MFP communities (started sept. 2011) Next steps Contents

4 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 4 Access to electricity

5 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 5 Electricity access in the world – Regional aggregates (source: IEA 2009) Analysis - Access to electricity

6 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 6 What is the Multifunctional Platform? MFP is a source of mechanical and electrical energy meant to replace significant quantities of human labour, especially that of women in rural areas in West Africa Typically, an MFP consists of an energy source (mainly a diesel engine – 8-12hp) mounted on a chassis which powers a variety of end-use equipment such as grinding mills, de-huskers, de-hullers, oil press equipment, water pumps and battery chargers UNDP financed a pilot MFP programme in several West African countries between 1994 and

7 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 7 The MFP in Pictures

8 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 8 The Ghana MFP Pilot Project Pilot project was started in 2005 and was expected to install 40 MFPs in as many communities in Brong-Ahafo and Northern Regions Project implemented by KITE in collaboration with 3 other NGOs and Community Based Organisations – NewEnergy, WACSO and Send Foundation

9 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 9 Enterprise-centred approach used, under concession Project in Ghana offered the lowest subsidy in equipment cost 54% in group-owned and 65% for individuals Initial financing model was 10% payment for equipment cost with the rest to be paid back in 5 years at a 10% interest rate in addition to constructing the building 32 MFP installed in 32 communities - average equipment cost per US$5,522 basic configuration: a 10hp Lister engine, grinding mill, double screw press and cassava grater 5 MFPs had 10 kVA generators and static battery chargers mounted in addition to the basic configuration Major drawback impact of the fuel price hikes/shortages (diesel filling station 1 USD/litre – Feb 2012) 9 The Ghana MFP Pilot Project

10 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 10 Lack of integrated evaluation approaches in rural electrification planning hinders RET success (Silva and Nakata, 2009). Previous projects (COOPENER) pointed out several needs: o Define and optimise roles and responsibilities in the public sector o Improve intra- and inter- institutional communication o Enable participatory processes, promote local and private involvement via PPP o New approach, considering decentralised schemes (for RUR & URB), with enhanced quality (standardisation of technological solutions vs flexibility to adapt to demand profiles ) Importance of double perspective of electricity as service to cover basic AND productive uses (Brew-Hammond, 2009), (ARE, 2010) Planning of DRE: lessons learnt

11 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 11 Key components in for an integrated approach to rural electrification: ProgrammeProjectGoal (as a service) Biomass opp. (selection) Social Development Social Integration Equity Local income generation throughout supply chain (SC). Replacement of Diesel TechnicalTechnologicalReliabilityDevelopment of certification / standards along SC InstitutionalOrganisationalEmpowermentBuild-on existing SCs FinancialEconomicViabilityLow local (SSA) operational costs Strategic planning principles: Programme / Project

12 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 12 Biomass supply chain model for rural electrification to provide a useful approach for biomass supply chains optimality and sustainability in rural communities. Green supply chain (LCA concepts) Mathematical formulation using multi-objective MILP techniques (Pérez-Fortes, M., Arranz-Piera, P., Laínez, J.M., Velo, E. and Puigjaner, L. (2011) ''Optimal location of gasification plants for electricity production in rural areas'' in Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering 29. pp Biomass-to-electricity SC

13 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 13 Technical component Small scale gasification within a CHCP concept At a small scale if a biomass gasifier is combined with a gas engine installation, its global efficiency may improve from 20% to 80% using heat recovery options.

14 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 14 Critical factors in Reliability: Quality assurance throughout the system SC and operational life Realistic demand assessment (avoid oversizing, forecasting) Flexibility to adapt to demand modularity Figura 1. Funciones principales de un sistema autónomo de provisión eléctrica Store Control Register and inform Power conditioning Consume Manage GenerationDistribution Generate Technical – Technological component

15 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 15 Technical component - microgrids

16 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 16 (*) Other studies in the Latin American context have shown that the majority of households (up to 70% of a community) would have a domestic electricity demand in the range of 8 to 20kWh per month, even with access to a 24h service scheme CategoryDemand level - reference 1 Basic Domestic* (lighting, communication) up to 20 kWh/month - 500W (DC or AC) per household 2 Medium domestic (1+ small low consumption fridge) up to 50 kWh/month W (AC) per household 3 Community (2+ community premises) Medium domestic + school, health centre (50 kWh/month W) + public lighting (20kWh/month - 80W for each 200m2) 43 + small productive usesAbove the previous values Technical component - Demand

17 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 17 Technical component – Demand in rural Ghana average WTP 5-10 GHC Demand assessment for GEDAP (World Bank) by KITE December 2011 Demand profile ConsumptionMaximum expenditure % of households kWh/monthappliancesGHC/monthUSD/monthbaseline +2% demography +20% expenditure VLup to 10 basic lighting + very small communications (radios or mobile phone chargers) 3,52,0625,00% L10 to 25VL + fan8,755,1545,00% M25 to 75L + small refrigerator26,2515,4430,00% Habove 75 M + +> 26,25> 15,440,00%

18 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 18 Technical component – Demand projections Demand assessment for GEDAP (World Bank) by KITE December 2011 The diffusion of innovations according to Rogers (1962). With successive groups of consumers adopting the new technology (shown in blue), its market share (yellow) will eventually reach the saturation level

19 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 19 Institutional component key roles! KEY ROLESMAIN RESPONSIBILITIES 1. PROGRAMME COORDINATOR I Plan, control and management of the programme over its whole life. Ensure communication with and between the key roles 2. INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPER I Defines objectives, strategies and mechanisms for the project execution, according to the conditions set by the regulator. 3. REGULATORI Establishes the conditions for the infrastructure implementation and management of the service (licensing, permitting, tariffs, quality criteria, subsidies...). 4. STANDARDIZING AGENT R Establishes the technical conditions for the infrastructure implementation and management of the electricity service (equipment certification and guarantee, quality criteria, safety) 5. FUNDER(S)IProvides economic resources (possibly financial options as well) 6. USERSI Beneficiaries from the service; must commit to the system conservation, and to the payment of a tariff for the service. 7. SOCIAL DEVELOPERI Represent and assist the users rights, mediate and communicate with other key roles.. 8. TECHNICAL DIRECTOR or IMPLEMENTER I Controls the adequate execution of the infrastructure execution and the service start-up. Can provide further assistance to the service operator or the users, if required. Built on IEC TS Recommendations for small renewable energy and hybrid systems for RE. 19

20 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC GENERATORSI Own the generation systems and produce electricity under the quality conditions set by the Regulator and Standardizing agent. 10. ELECTRICITY SERVICE OPERATOR I Controls the sustained and correct operation of the system, the service management, financing (incl. users payments). 11. INSTALLERI Adequate installation, start-up and commissioning of the system equipment. 12. MAINTENANCE PROVIDER I Technical specialist, conducts maintenance of the system infrastructure (spare parts, collection of used parts, etc.) 13. BIOMASS SUPPLIER(S), TRANSPORTER I Production and supply of the biomass resource, under the conditions and quality criteria set by the Regulator and Standardizing agent. 14. PROVIDER(S)ISupply materials and equipment (and corresponding guarantees) 15. TRAINER – COMMUNICATOR I Conducts specific training and capacity building activities for local technicians, users, and other local entities involved in the management of the system. 16. EVALUATOR or INSPECTOR R Periodical supervision of the infrastructure execution and service provision according to the conditions set by the regulator. Verifies the adequacy of the global performance in accordance to the objectives, strategies and mechanisms set by the project developer. 17. DISSEMINATION DIRECTOR R Conducts promotional and awareness raising activities related to the infrastructure implemented and the service provided.

21 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 21 Financial component Viability! av. WTP

22 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 22 Environmental impacts – LCA, CBA. Adoption at planning level? Social impacts? Example from (former) MIDEPLAN methodologies (Chile) Private price diesel: 1,000 USD/l filling station Social price diesel (USD/l) put at consumption point Litres bought travelling hours (return) ,51,0501,0101,0051,0021,001 11,1001,0201,0101,0031,002 51,5001,1001,0501,0171, ,0001,2001,1001,0331, ,0001,4001,2001,0671,040 Financial component – valorisation of social impacts

23 IV Jornadas de Energía Renovable y Desarrollo Humano: Tecnologías Apropiadas. Escenario energético mundial Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC 23 Next steps Finalise electricity demand assessment in MFPs Select candidates for role fulfillment in each community Negotiate PPA with GEC and concessionaire utilities (under new Renewable Energy Bill) + Service Mgt. model Select sustainability indicators and Finalise feasibility studies for each MFP community Prepare a step by step guide with specific reference formats, both at programme and project level And, in parallel, implement a small scale biomass gasification microplant in TEC-KNUST laboratory

24 Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC Project: Energy Access for the Poor in sub- Saharan Africa to meet the Millennium Development Goals ENERGY FOR ALL 2030 Partners: Practical Action (UK), EDUCON (Czech Republic) Stockholm Environment Institute (SWE), UPC (ESP) Acknowledgment

25 Institut Universitari de Recerca en Ciència i Tecnologies de la Sostenibilitat IS.UPC Thank you very much for your attention Pol Arranz Piera


Descargar ppt "International Conference Low-cost, electricity generating heat engines for rural areas University of Nottingham, 2 April 2012 Integrated planning of sustainable."

Presentaciones similares


Anuncios Google