2 What are relative clauses? Son oraciones subordinadas adjetivas porque:Son parte de una oración principalFuncionan como un adjetivo.El nexo es un pronombre relativo.Supongamos la oración simple:The TALL man came yesterdayAdjetivoThe man came yesterday.The man is tall.
3 The man WHO is tall came yesterday The TALL man came yesterdayAdjetivoAquí hay dos ideas sobre un mismo elemento: The manThe man came yesterday.The man is tall.The man WHO is tall came yesterdayDonde:1.- El nexo de relativo WHO = THE MAN2.- The man came yesterday es la oración principal3.- WHO is tall es la de relativo4.- WHO es el pronombre nexo de relativo5.- The man es el antecedente.En lugar de poner un adjetivo delante del nombre, podríamos unirlas de la siguiente manera:
4 The man WHO is tall came yesterday La oraciónThe man WHO is tall came yesterdayes una oración poco probable porque podemos reducir la parte “WHO IS TALL” a un solo adjetivo “TALL”, con lo que simplificamos, y por lo tanto preferimos decir:The tall man came yesterdaySin embargo, si queremos unir estas dos informaciones1.- The man came yesterday2.- The man bought the red car.en una sola oración, no podemos usar un adjetivo que exprese una idea tan compleja como “The man bought the red car”, y entonces se hace necesario utilizar la oración de relativo:The man WHO BOUGHT THE RED CAR came yesterday.
5 Dado que las oraciones de relativo son informaciones sobre un sustantivo (ANTECEDENTE), aquéllas siempre irán inmediatamente detrás de éste, y el orden de dichas oraciones siempre será ANTECEDENTE + PRONOMBRE + ORACIÓN DE RELATIVO RELATIVO This is THE MAN THAT I SAW YESTERDAY
6 Hay dos tipos de Relative Sentences, dependiendo del carácter del antecedente, lo que determinará la función de la oración de relativo.Non-defining:My father, who is 47, likes football very much.CARACTERÍSTICAS:- Si quitamos la oración de relativo who is 47, el antecedente sigue estando definido.- Van entre comas.- Siempre llevan el nexo de relativo (WHO, en este caso).- Se usan, sobre todo, en lenguaje escrito.
7 Hay dos tipos de Relative Sentences, dependiendo del carácter del antecedente, lo que determinará la función de la oración de relativo.Defining:There are 20 teachers.The teacher who is 47 likes football very much.CARACTERÍSTICAS:- Si quitamos la oración de relativo who is 47, el antecedente no estaría definido.- No llevan comas.- A veces prescinden del nexo de relativo.- Se usan en lenguaje oral y escrito.
8 THE PROBLEM IS…Comparadas con el español, las oraciones de relativo en inglés presentan algunas diferencias:1.- En español, siempre aparece el pronombre de relativo; en inglés, a veces no.La casa que compraste era muy cara.The house you bought was very expensive.2.- Cuando hay preposiciones en la oración de relativo, en español aparece delante del pronombre de relativo; en inglés, habitualmente no aparece delante del pronombre de relativo. Hay que saber cuándo ocurre esto y dónde se coloca esa preposición.El profesor con el que estabas hablando era Bob.The teacher you were talking to was Bob.
9 Lo que es necesario aprender: THE PROBLEM IS…Lo que es necesario aprender:Defining relative sentences (sin comas).Definig relative sentences with preposition.WHOSE.Non-defining relative sentences (con comas), con o sin preposición.“Lo que” = What “Lo que” = WHICH.WHERE – WHEN -WHY
10 I. Defining relative sentences DefinitionAs the name suggests, these clauses give essential information to define or identify the person or thing we are talking about. Obviously, this is only necessary if there is more than one person or thing involved.Example: Elephants who marry mice are very unusual. In this sentence we understand that there are many elephants, but it is clear that we are only talking the ones who marry mice.Punctuation Commas are not used in defining relative clauses.Relative pronouns Sometimes the relative pronouns are ommitted...
11 I. Defining relative sentences OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE PRONOUNThe policeman was really tall.Two possible relative sentences:The policeman came yesterday.SUBJECTMary saw the policeman.OBJECT (C.Dto.)The policeman was really tall.who came yesterday(who) Mary saw
12 MAIN CLAUSE RELATIVE CLAUSE RESULTING SENTENCES LINKRESULTING SENTENCESPEOPLETHE MAN BOUGHT A BOOKSUBJECT:THE MAN CAME YESTERDAYWHOTHATTHE MAN WHO CAME YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOKTHE MAN THAT CAME YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOKOBJECT:I SAW THE MAN YESTERDAYXXXXXTHE MAN WHO I SAW YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOKTHE MAN THAT I SAW YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOKTHE MAN I SAW YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOKTHINGSTHE CAR WAS VERY OLDTHE CAR BROKE DOWNWHICHTHE CAR WHICH BROKE DOWN WAS VERY OLDTHE CAR THAT BROKE DOWN WAS VERY OLDI BOUGHT THE CARTHE CAR WHICH I BOUGHT WAS VERY OLDTHE CAR THAT I BOUGHT WAS VERY OLDTHE CAR I BOUGHT WAS VERY OLD
13 Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space 1 The bike _________________________ I had left at the gate had disappeared.2 The shoes ____________________ I boughtwere the ones ___________________ I tried on first3 The bag ___________________ the robbersforgot was found fullXXXX-WHICH-THATXXXX-WHICH-THATXXXX-WHICH-THATXXXX-WHICH-THAT
14 Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space 4 The medicine _________________the doctor gave me had no effect at all5 The man ________________ couldn't see the screen decided to change his seat6 I really liked that tea _____________you made me this morningXXXX-WHICH-THATWHO-THATXXXX-WHICH-THAT
15 Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space 7 What was the name of the boy _____________ gave you the money?8 The flight __________________Joe was going to take was cancelled9 The person ______________ phoned didn’t leave a message.WHO-THATXXXX-WHICH-THATWHO-THAT
16 Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space 10 The guidebook ___________________we bought explained everything.11 The car ____________ broke down was Peter’s.12 The students _______________ like English will pass the exam.XXXX-WHICH-THATWHICH-THATWHO-THAT
17 I. Defining relative sentences Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 0 She chose the books. She wanted to buy them. 1 We ate the sandwiches. Jack made them.She chose the books she wanted to buy.We ate the sandwiches Jack made.
18 I. Defining relative sentences Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 2 I’m doing some work. I have to finish it today. 3 She’s an old woman. I often see her..I’m doing some work I have to finish today.She’s the old woman I often see.
19 I. Defining relative sentences Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 4 He’s an actor. A lot of people like him.. 5 The picture was hanging on that wall. It was awful.He’s the actor a lot of people like.The picture which/that was hanging on that wall was awful.
20 I. Defining relative sentences Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 6 Mary sent me a letter. It was very funny. 7 It’s a magazine. I often read it.The letter Mary sent me was very funny.This is the magazine I often read.
21 I. Defining relative sentences Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 8 She’s the singer. She was on TV last night. 9 I paid the bills. They came yesterday..She’s the singer THAT/WHO was on TV last night.I paid the bills THAT/WHICH came yesterday.
22 II. Relative clauses and prepositions In spoken English a preposition in a relative clause is usually placed in its natural position, and the relative pronoun is omitted. A more formal alternative is to put the preposition before the relative pronoun.The man is here. I talked to the man yesterday.The manto whomI talked yesterdayis here.The manI talkedtoyesterdayis here.
23 II. Relative clauses and prepositions When the object is a person:The man I spoke to was very friendly.(or) The man who/that I spoke to was very friendly.(or) The man to whom I spoke was very friendly. (formal)When the object is a thing:The house I was born in is gone.(or) The house that I was born in is gone.(or) The house in which I was born is gone.(formal)
24 II. Relative clauses and prepositions CONNECT THESE SENTENCESThis is the pen. I wrote the exam with the pen.That’s the policeman. I was with the policeman yesterday.That’s the girl. Paul goes out with the girl.This is the town. We arrived at the town at 6.30.This is the hotel. We stayed at the hotel with your brother.This is the pen I wrote the exam with.That’s the policeman I was with yesterday.That’s the girl Paul goes out with.This is the town we arrive at at 6.30.This is the hotel we stayed at with your brother.
25 II.Relative clauses and prepositions REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES1 These are the boys with whom I went on holiday.2 Here’s the letter for which I've been waiting.3 That is the shop from which Sue bought her bike.5 Tim is someone to whom I hardly ever write.These are the boys I went on holiday with.Here’s the letter I’ve been waiting for.That is the shop Sue bought her bike from.Tom is someone I hardly ever write to.
26 III. WHOSE = CUYO To show that something belongs to somebody: He helped a woman whose car had broken down.They’re the people whose house was burgled.Whose is not usually used to refer to a thing. Of which is usually used instead.He’s reading the book, the name of which I can never remember.But it is more natural to say:He’s reading that book-I can never remember its name…
27 IV: Non-defining relative clauses Non-relative defining clauses add extra information about somebody or something which could be left out and the sentence would still make sense. This extra information is separated from the main clause by commas:The film, which was shot in Mexico, has won an Oscar.The pronouns that can be used in the non- defining clauses are who, whom, which and whose.
28 IV: Non-defining relative clauses Use whoWhen the subject is a person:My sister, who is a vegetarian, ordered a salad.Use whichWhen the subject is a thing:The tickets, which can be bought at the station, are valid for a month.
29 IV: Non-defining relative clauses Use who or whomWhen the object is a person:Peter, who nobody had met before, arrived late.(or) Peter, whom nobody had met before, arrived late.(formal)Use whichWhen the object is a thing:The tickets, which I’ve paid for, are still valid.Use whoseWhen something belongs to somebody:Lucy, whose car had broken down, didn’t go.
30 IV: Non-defining relative clauses EXERCISES 1. She showed me a photograph of her son. Her son is a policeman.2. The new stadium will be opened next month. The stadium holds 90,000 people.3. John is one of my closest friends. I have known John for eight years.She showed me a photograph of her son, who is a policeman.The new stadium, which holds 90,000 people, will be opened next month.John, whom I have known for eight years, is one of my closest friends.
31 IV: Non-defining relative clauses EXERCISES 4. Thank you for your letter. I was very happy to get your letter.5. The storm caused a lot of damage. Nobody had been expecting the storm.6. That man over there is an artist. I don’t remember his name.Thank you for your letter, which I was very happy to get.The storm, which nobody had been expecting, caused a lot of damage.That man, whose name I don’t remember, is an artist.
32 IV: Non-defining relative clauses EXERCISES 7. Mr Yates is retiring next month. He has worked for the same company all his life.8 Mr Roberts is in prison. Janet fell in love with him.9. My sister is visiting us next week. You once met her.Mr Yates, who has worked for the same company all his life, is retiring next month.Mr Roberts, with whom Janet fell in love, is in prison.My sister, whom you once met, is visiting us next week.
33 V: WHAT - WHICH = “LO QUE” WHAT=“The thing(s) that”: antecedente+relativoNo sé lo que (la cosa que) quiere.I don’t know WHAT he wants.Lo que (las cosas que) dijo no estuvo bien.WHAT he said was not right.WHICH=cuando el antecedente es una oración complete y no un sustantivo. Siempre va detrás de una coma:Vino tarde, lo que me molestó mucho.He was late, WHICH annoyed me so much.
34 VI: WHERE - WHEN – WHY relative adverbs meaning use example when in/on whichrefers to a time expressionthe day when we met himwherein/at whichrefers to a placethe place where we met himwhyfor whichrefers to a reasonthe reason why we met him
35 RELATIVE SENTENCES: ALL TOGETHER NOW! TRANSLATION1.- No vino, lo que nunca pensé que pasaría1.- He didn’t come, which I never thought would happen.2.- Lucy, cuyo coche se averió, no vino a la fiesta.2.- Lucy, whose car had broken down, didn’t come to the party.3.- Mr Roberts, de quien se enamoró Janet, está en la cárcel.3.- Mr Roberts, with whom Janet fell in love, is in prison.
36 RELATIVE SENTENCES: ALL TOGETHER NOW! TRANSLATION4.- Peter, a quien nadie conocía, llegó tarde.4.- Peter, whom nobody had met before, arrived late.5.- Ese es el policía con el que estuve ayer.5.- That’s the policeman I was with yesterday.6.- Esa es la razón por la que nos quedamos en casa.6.- That’s the reason why we stayed at home.
37 RELATIVE SENTENCES: ALL TOGETHER NOW! TRANSLATION7.- La bici que dejé en la puerta había desaparecideo.7.- The bike I had left at the gate had disappeared.8.- Ese es el policía con el que estuve ayer.8.- The car which broke down was Peter’s.9.- La casa en la que vivimos está en Londres.9.- The house where we live is in London.
38 RELATIVE SENTENCES: ALL TOGETHER NOW! TRANSLATION10.- El hombre que no podía ver la pantalla decidió cambiarse de sitio.10.- The man who couldn't see the screen decided to change his seat.11.- El estudiante cuyos libros se han perdido es H.11.- The student whose books are missing is H.12.- Los alumnos a los que les guste el Inglé aprobarán el examen.12.- The students who like English will pass the exam.
39 RELATIVE SENTENCES: ALL TOGETHER NOW! TRANSLATION13.- Los billetes, que he pagado yo, todavía son válidos13.- The tickets, which I’ve paid for, are still valid.14.- Estos son los momentos en que me haces sentir estúpido.14.- These are the moments when you make me feel stupid.15.-Esta es la ciudad a la que llegamos a las 6.30.15. - This is the town we arrived at at 6.30.15.-Lo que ves es lo mejor.What you see is the best.