Presentación del tema: "Son oraciones subordinadas adjetivas porque: Son parte de una oración principal Funcionan como un adjetivo. El nexo es un pronombre relativo. Supongamos."— Transcripción de la presentación:
Son oraciones subordinadas adjetivas porque: Son parte de una oración principal Funcionan como un adjetivo. El nexo es un pronombre relativo. Supongamos la oración simple: The TALL man came yesterday Adjetivo The man came yesterday. The man is tall.
The TALL man came yesterday Adjetivo Aquí hay dos ideas sobre un mismo elemento: The man The man came yesterday. The man is tall. The man WHO is tall came yesterday Donde: 1.- El nexo de relativo WHO = THE MAN 2.- The man came yesterday es la oración principal 3.- WHO is tall es la de relativo 4.- WHO es el pronombre nexo de relativo 5.- The man es el antecedente. En lugar de poner un adjetivo delante del nombre, podríamos unirlas de la siguiente manera:
La oración The man WHO is tall came yesterday es una oración poco probable porque podemos reducir la parte WHO IS TALL a un solo adjetivo TALL, con lo que simplificamos, y por lo tanto preferimos decir: The tall man came yesterday Sin embargo, si queremos unir estas dos informaciones 1.- The man came yesterday 2.- The man bought the red car. en una sola oración, no podemos usar un adjetivo que exprese una idea tan compleja como The man bought the red car, y entonces se hace necesario utilizar la oración de relativo: The man WHO BOUGHT THE RED CAR came yesterday.
Dado que las oraciones de relativo son informaciones sobre un sustantivo (ANTECEDENTE), aquéllas siempre irán inmediatamente detrás de éste, y el orden de dichas oraciones siempre será ANTECEDENTE + PRONOMBRE + ORACIÓN DE RELATIVO RELATIVO This is THE MAN THAT I SAW YESTERDAY
Hay dos tipos de Relative Sentences, dependiendo del carácter del antecedente, lo que determinará la función de la oración de relativo. Non-defining: My father, who is 47, likes football very much. CARACTERÍSTICAS: - Si quitamos la oración de relativo who is 47, el antecedente sigue estando definido. - Van entre comas. - Siempre llevan el nexo de relativo (WHO, en este caso). - Se usan, sobre todo, en lenguaje escrito.
Hay dos tipos de Relative Sentences, dependiendo del carácter del antecedente, lo que determinará la función de la oración de relativo. Defining: There are 20 teachers. The teacher who is 47 likes football very much. CARACTERÍSTICAS: - Si quitamos la oración de relativo who is 47, el antecedente no estaría definido. - No llevan comas. - A veces prescinden del nexo de relativo. - Se usan en lenguaje oral y escrito.
THE PROBLEM IS… Comparadas con el español, las oraciones de relativo en inglés presentan algunas diferencias: 1.- En español, siempre aparece el pronombre de relativo; en inglés, a veces no. La casa que compraste era muy cara. The house --- you bought was very expensive. 2.- Cuando hay preposiciones en la oración de relativo, en español aparece delante del pronombre de relativo; en inglés, habitualmente no aparece delante del pronombre de relativo. Hay que saber cuándo ocurre esto y dónde se coloca esa preposición. El profesor con el que estabas hablando era Bob. The teacher -------- you were talking to was Bob.
THE PROBLEM IS… Lo que es necesario aprender: I.Defining relative sentences (sin comas). II.Definig relative sentences with preposition. III.WHOSE. IV.Non-defining relative sentences (con comas), con o sin preposición. V. Lo que = What ---- Lo que = WHICH. VI.WHERE – WHEN -WHY
Definition As the name suggests, these clauses give essential information to define or identify the person or thing we are talking about. Obviously, this is only necessary if there is more than one person or thing involved. Example: Elephants who marry mice are very unusual. In this sentence we understand that there are many elephants, but it is clear that we are only talking the ones who marry mice. Punctuation Commas are not used in defining relative clauses. Relative pronouns Sometimes the relative pronouns are ommitted...
OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE PRONOUN The policeman was really tall. Two possible relative sentences: The policeman came yesterday. SUBJECT Mary saw the policeman. OBJECT (C.Dto.) The policeman was really tall. who came yesterday (who) Mary saw
MAIN CLAUSERELATIVE CLAUSE LINK RESULTING SENTENCES PEOPLE THE MAN BOUGHT A BOOK SUBJECT: THE MAN CAME YESTERDAY WHO THAT THE MAN WHO CAME YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOK THE MAN THAT CAME YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOK PEOPLE THE MAN BOUGHT A BOOK OBJECT: I SAW THE MAN YESTERDAY WHO THAT XXXXX THE MAN WHO I SAW YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOK THE MAN THAT I SAW YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOK THE MAN I SAW YESTERDAY BOUGHT A BOOK THINGS THE CAR WAS VERY OLD SUBJECT: THE CAR BROKE DOWN WHICH THAT THE CAR WHICH BROKE DOWN WAS VERY OLD THE CAR THAT BROKE DOWN WAS VERY OLD THINGS THE CAR WAS VERY OLD OBJECT: I BOUGHT THE CAR WHICH THAT XXXXX THE CAR WHICH I BOUGHT WAS VERY OLD THE CAR THAT I BOUGHT WAS VERY OLD THE CAR I BOUGHT WAS VERY OLD
Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space 1 The bike _________________________ I had left at the gate had disappeared. 2 The shoes ____________________ I bought were the ones ___________________ I tried on first 3 The bag ___________________ the robbers forgot was found full XXXX-WHICH-THAT
Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space 4 The medicine _________________the doctor gave me had no effect at all 5 The man ________________ couldn't see the screen decided to change his seat 6 I really liked that tea _____________you made me this morning XXXX-WHICH-THAT WHO-THAT XXXX-WHICH-THAT
Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space 7 What was the name of the boy _____________ gave you the money? 8 The flight __________________Joe was going to take was cancelled 9 The person ______________ phoned didnt leave a message. WHO-THAT XXXX-WHICH-THAT WHO-THAT
Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space 10 The guidebook ___________________we bought explained everything. 11 The car ____________ broke down was Peters. 12 The students _______________ like English will pass the exam. XXXX-WHICH-THAT WHICH-THAT WHO-THAT
Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 0 She chose the books. She wanted to buy them. 1 We ate the sandwiches. Jack made them. She chose the books she wanted to buy. We ate the sandwiches Jack made.
Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 2 Im doing some work. I have to finish it today. 3 Shes an old woman. I often see her.. Im doing some work I have to finish today. Shes the old woman I often see.
Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 4 Hes an actor. A lot of people like him.. 5 The picture was hanging on that wall. It was awful. Hes the actor a lot of people like. The picture which/that was hanging on that wall was awful.
Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 6 Mary sent me a letter. It was very funny. 7 Its a magazine. I often read it. The letter Mary sent me was very funny. This is the magazine I often read.
Join these sentences using who, which only when necessary. 8 Shes the singer. She was on TV last night. 9 I paid the bills. They came yesterday.. Shes the singer THAT/WHO was on TV last night. I paid the bills THAT/WHICH came yesterday.
In spoken English a preposition in a relative clause is usually placed in its natural position, and the relative pronoun is omitted. A more formal alternative is to put the preposition before the relative pronoun. The man is here. I talked to the man yesterday. The manis here.I talked yesterdayto whom The manI talkedis here.toyesterday
When the object is a person: The man I spoke to was very friendly. (or) The man who/that I spoke to was very friendly. (or) The man to whom I spoke was very friendly. (formal) When the object is a thing: The house I was born in is gone. (or) The house that I was born in is gone. (or) The house in which I was born is gone.(formal)
CONNECT THESE SENTENCES This is the pen. I wrote the exam with the pen. Thats the policeman. I was with the policeman yesterday. Thats the girl. Paul goes out with the girl. This is the town. We arrived at the town at 6.30. This is the hotel. We stayed at the hotel with your brother. This is the pen I wrote the exam with. Thats the policeman I was with yesterday. Thats the girl Paul goes out with. This is the town we arrive at at 6.30. This is the hotel we stayed at with your brother.
REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES 1 These are the boys with whom I went on holiday. 2 Heres the letter for which I've been waiting. 3 That is the shop from which Sue bought her bike. 5 Tim is someone to whom I hardly ever write. These are the boys I went on holiday with. Heres the letter Ive been waiting for. That is the shop Sue bought her bike from. Tom is someone I hardly ever write to.
To show that something belongs to somebody: He helped a woman whose car had broken down. Theyre the people whose house was burgled. Whose is not usually used to refer to a thing. Of which is usually used instead. Hes reading the book, the name of which I can never remember. But it is more natural to say: Hes reading that book-I can never remember its name…
Non-relative defining clauses add extra information about somebody or something which could be left out and the sentence would still make sense. This extra information is separated from the main clause by commas: The film, which was shot in Mexico, has won an Oscar. The pronouns that can be used in the non- defining clauses are who, whom, which and whose.
When the subject is a person: My sister, who is a vegetarian, ordered a salad. When the subject is a thing: The tickets, which can be bought at the station, are valid for a month.
When the object is a person: Peter, who nobody had met before, arrived late. (or) Peter, whom nobody had met before, arrived late.(formal) When the object is a thing: The tickets, which Ive paid for, are still valid. When something belongs to somebody: Lucy, whose car had broken down, didnt go.
1. She showed me a photograph of her son. Her son is a policeman. 2. The new stadium will be opened next month. The stadium holds 90,000 people. 3. John is one of my closest friends. I have known John for eight years. She showed me a photograph of her son, who is a policeman. The new stadium, which holds 90,000 people, will be opened next month. John, whom I have known for eight years, is one of my closest friends.
4. Thank you for your letter. I was very happy to get your letter. 5. The storm caused a lot of damage. Nobody had been expecting the storm. 6. That man over there is an artist. I dont remember his name. Thank you for your letter, which I was very happy to get. The storm, which nobody had been expecting, caused a lot of damage. That man, whose name I dont remember, is an artist.
7. Mr Yates is retiring next month. He has worked for the same company all his life. 8 Mr Roberts is in prison. Janet fell in love with him. 9. My sister is visiting us next week. You once met her. Mr Yates, who has worked for the same company all his life, is retiring next month. Mr Roberts, with whom Janet fell in love, is in prison. My sister, whom you once met, is visiting us next week.
WHAT=The thing(s) that: antecedente+relativo No sé lo que (la cosa que) quiere. I dont know WHAT he wants. Lo que (las cosas que) dijo no estuvo bien. WHAT he said was not right. WHICH=cuando el antecedente es una oración complete y no un sustantivo. Siempre va detrás de una coma: Vino tarde, lo que me molestó mucho. He was late, WHICH annoyed me so much.
relative adverbs meaninguseexample whenin/on which refers to a time expressi on the day when we met him wherein/at which refers to a place the place where we met him whyfor which refers to a reason the reason why we met him
1.- No vino, lo que nunca pensé que pasaría 1.- He didnt come, which I never thought would happen. 2.- Lucy, cuyo coche se averió, no vino a la fiesta. 2.- Lucy, whose car had broken down, didnt come to the party. 3.- Mr Roberts, de quien se enamoró Janet, está en la cárcel. 3.- Mr Roberts, with whom Janet fell in love, is in prison.
4.- Peter, a quien nadie conocía, llegó tarde. 4.- Peter, whom nobody had met before, arrived late. 5.- Ese es el policía con el que estuve ayer. 5.- Thats the policeman I was with yesterday. 6.- Esa es la razón por la que nos quedamos en casa. 6.- Thats the reason why we stayed at home.
7.- La bici que dejé en la puerta había desaparecideo. 7.- The bike I had left at the gate had disappeared. 8.- Ese es el policía con el que estuve ayer. 8.- The car which broke down was Peters. 9.- La casa en la que vivimos está en Londres. 9.- The house where we live is in London.
10.- El hombre que no podía ver la pantalla decidió cambiarse de sitio. 10.- The man who couldn't see the screen decided to change his seat. 11.- El estudiante cuyos libros se han perdido es H. 11.- The student whose books are missing is H. 12.- Los alumnos a los que les guste el Inglé aprobarán el examen. 12.- The students who like English will pass the exam.
13.- Los billetes, que he pagado yo, todavía son válidos 13.- The tickets, which Ive paid for, are still valid. 14.- Estos son los momentos en que me haces sentir estúpido. 14.- These are the moments when you make me feel stupid. 15.-Esta es la ciudad a la que llegamos a las 6.30. 15. - This is the town we arrived at at 6.30. 15. - What you see is the best. 15.-Lo que ves es lo mejor.