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Badly behaved Spanish! Sometimes in Languages, you come across phrases that just don’t seem translatable, or phrases whose meaning just doesn’t appear.

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Presentación del tema: "Badly behaved Spanish! Sometimes in Languages, you come across phrases that just don’t seem translatable, or phrases whose meaning just doesn’t appear."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Badly behaved Spanish! Sometimes in Languages, you come across phrases that just don’t seem translatable, or phrases whose meaning just doesn’t appear obvious to you. Remember back when you started Spanish... learning that ‘tengo’ means ‘i have’? Remember a few weeks after that... discovering ‘Tengo ocho años’ means ‘I am 8 years old’ ? (I have 8 years?????) Confusing? This presentation will help you to remember 100+ phrases like the one above and hopefully give you some help in figuring things out for yourself when you do reading exams or exercises. Go into ‘slide show view’ on slide 2 and navigate your way around the presentation in this way. Each mouse click on a slide will reveal the English meaning BUT try to guess what the meaning is BEFORE you click. The pumpkin will take you back to the title screen (slide 2) 1

2 Badly behaved Spanish! Please enter ‘slide-show view’ to begin and click a number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

3 1. Tener phrases – Part 1 1. Tener hambre 2. Tener sed
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 1. Tener phrases – Part 1 Tener normally means ‘to have’ so you may be forgiven for thinking that it’s a nice, easy-to-understand verb. Unfortunately, tener is used in loads of phrases where we would use ‘to be’ in English. See how many you can match up to the pics. 1. Tener hambre 2. Tener sed 3. Tener siete años 4. Tener éxito 5. Tener calor 6. Tener frío 7. Tener ganas de vomitar 8. Tener miedo 9. Tener sueño 10. Tener prisa 11. Tener razón 4 To be hungry To be thirsty To be 7 years old to be successful to be hot to be cold 8 2 10 5 7 3 6 To want to be sick To be scared To be tired to be in a hurry to be right/correct 11 9 1 Main menu

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2. Tener phrases – Part 2 Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Blancanieves tenía mucho sueño Juanita cree que siempre tiene razón Snow White was very tired Juanita thinks she is always right Voy a tener seis años en noviembre No me pares, que tengo mucha prisa I’m going to be 6 years old in november Don’t stop me, I’m in a rush Main menu

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3. Tener phrases – Part 3 Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Las pirañas tienen hambre a menudo Tengo calor – voy a quitarme la chaqueta Piranhas are often hungry I’m hot – I’m going to take off my jacket Cuando corren en el desierto, es normal que los atletas tengan sed Ella no me quiere - tengo ganas de llorar She doesn’t love me – I want to cry When they run in the desert, it’s normal for the athletes to be thirsty Main menu

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4. Ojalá This phrase comes for an arabic religious word meaning ‘God willing’; although you could also translate it as ‘I wish’ / ‘I hope’. It’s used with the subjunctive. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Ojalá pudiera volar I wish i could fly Ojalá sea algo caro I hope it’s something expensive Ojalá hubiera comprado una nueva taza I wish i had bought a new cup Main menu

7 5. Susan’s / The cat’s / Japan’s
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 5. Susan’s / The cat’s / Japan’s In English we express possession by using apostrophe + s (Japan’s president / Susan’s house); however in Spanish they always use ‘de’(belonging to) (El presidente de Japón) (La casa de Susan). Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Las joyas de la reina de Sheba La gente del barrio se reúne en el parque The Queen of Sheba’s jewels The neighbourhood’s people meet in the park Los lagartos de la isla de Gran Canaria Cuatro camiones de cinco toneladas de capacidad Four 5-tonne lorries The island of Gran Canaria’s lizards Main menu

8 6. Passive use of ‘se’ Part 1
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 6. Passive use of ‘se’ Part 1 What’s the difference between ‘llama’ and ‘se llama’? ‘hace’ and ‘se hace’? In Spanish, when you want to express the idea of something being done/being called/being said, you would use SE + 3rd person singular or plural of a verb. ACTIVE - CALLING PASSIVE – BEING CALLED Llama a su madre cada noche La niña se llama Beatriz She calls her mother every night The girl is called Beatriz ACTIVE - MAKING PASSIVE – BEING MADE En América hacen la tarta con manzanas La lasaña se hace con queso Lasagne is made with cheese In America they make the pie with apples Main menu

9 7. Passive use of ‘se’ part 2
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 7. Passive use of ‘se’ part 2 Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. En el pasado se sabía poco de la astronomía Se dice que hay extraterrestres en el Marte In the past, little was known about astronomy It is said that there are aliens on Mars Los españoles se consideran católicos ‘Jirafa’ no se escribe con una g en español ‘Giraffe’ is not written with a g in Spanish Spanish people are considered to be catholic Main menu

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8. Impersonal use of ‘se’ In Spanish, we also see an ‘impersonal’ use of ‘se’ with 3rd person singular/plural verbs. It is very similar to the passive use and can be translated in English as ‘one can’(se puede) ‘one must’ (se debe) ‘one has to’ (se tiene que) No se permite fumar en los bars No se debe comer con prisa Smoking is not allowed (one can’t smoke) in bars One shouldn’t eat too quickly Antes, se entraba por la puerta trasera Se tiene que controlar las emociones Before, one used to go in by the backdoor One has to control their emotions Main menu

11 9. Verbs like ‘gustar’ & ‘encantar’
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 9. Verbs like ‘gustar’ & ‘encantar’ Normally verbs work like this….You begin with an infinitive… COMER – TO EAT. Then you change the endings according to who is performing the action. Como – I eat Comes – You eat Come – He/She eats Comemos – We eat Coméis – You (pl) eat Comen – They eat However, some verbs like gustar/encantar/interesar work a little differently. With these verbs, it’s the thing being liked/loved/interesting that controls the verb ending. So really the verb gustar means ‘to please’, encantar means ‘to enchant’ interesar means ‘to be interest’. Click the video beneath and listen to the lyrics of the song below. Notice that although it is the same person doing all the ‘liking’, the verb still changes according to what he likes/what is likeable. Lyrics start at 0:24 of song. See the literal translation on the right (sounds silly doesn’t it) Me gustan los aviones, me gustas tu. Me gusta viajar, me gustas tu. Me gusta la mañana, me gustas tu. Me gusta el viento, me gustas tu. Me gusta soñar, me gustas tu. Me gusta la mar, me gustas tu. Planes are likeable to me, you are likable to me Travelling is likeable to me. you are likable to me The morning is likeable to me, you are likeable to me The wind is likeable to me, you are likeable to me Sleeping is likeable to me, you are likeable to me The sea is likeable to me, you are likeable to me Main menu

12 10. Verbs like ‘gustar’ & ‘encantar’
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 10. Verbs like ‘gustar’ & ‘encantar’ So let’s have a look at 18 sentences, what do you think they mean? Me gusto I like myself Me gustan I like them Me gusta I like it Te gusta You like it Te gusto You like me Te gustan You like them Le gusta He/She likes it Le gusto He/She likes me Le gustan He/She likes them Nos gusta We like it Nos gusto We like me???? Nos gustan We like them Os gusta You(pl) like it Os gusto You(pl) like me Os gustan You(pl) like them Les gusta They like it Les gusto They like me Les gustan They like them So, with verbs like gustar, it is not who is liking that changes the verb...it is what is being liked. What do you think these 3 sentences mean? 1.) Le encantan 2.) Les gustamos 3.) Le gustas They like us He/She loves them He/She likes you Main menu

13 11. Verbs like ‘gustar’ & ‘encantar’
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 11. Verbs like ‘gustar’ & ‘encantar’ Some of the other verbs that work like gustar are: ‘interesar’(to be interesting), ‘molestar’(to be annoying), ‘parecer’(to appear/to seem), ‘faltar’ (to be needed) Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. ¿Te parece feo este vestido? No le interesan mucho los estudios Does this dress look ugly to you? She’s not very interested in her studies Le molestó tener que comprar otra rueda Nos hace falta otro coche It annoyed him to have to buy a new wheel We need another car Main menu

14 12. Al + infinitive Al + an infinitive is used in Spanish to get across the idea of ‘when something happens’/ ‘upon happening’ or ‘on happening’. It can be used with instructions or descriptions of events. Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Al oír el timbre, los estudiantes van a sus clases Al ver a su oponente, tenía mucho miedo Upon hearing the bell, the students go to classes Upon seeing his opponent, he felt very scared Al ver la factura, estaba chocado Al llegar al aeropuerto, alquila un coche When he saw the bill, he was shocked On arriving at the airport, hire a car Main menu

15 13. Expressing ‘each other’ using reflexives
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 13. Expressing ‘each other’ using reflexives Reflexive pronouns can be added to verbs to convey the idea of ‘each other’ Reflexive pronouns are me, te, se, nos, os and se. EXAMPLE – Escribimos cartas de cuando en vez – We write letters sometimes Nos escribimos cartas a veces – We write letters to each other sometimes Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Los gemelos se acompañan al trabajo The twins accompany each other to work Nos ayudamos con los muebles We help each other with the furniture Se conocieron en la oficina They met each other in the office Main menu

16 14. Use of indirect object pronouns
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 14. Use of indirect object pronouns Indirect pronouns are ‘me’ ‘te’ ‘le’ ‘nos’ ‘os’ ‘les’ They can be used in lots of ways, for example ‘me’ can mean ‘me’ ‘to me’ ‘for me’ ‘for my’ ‘my’ ‘on me’ ‘at me’ ‘at my’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Mis padres me pagaron la renta en la universidad My parents paid for my rent at uni Me estaban gastando una broma They were playing a joke on me Me van a mirar el coche en un taller They’re going to look at my car in a garage Main menu

17 15. Use of indirect object pronouns
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 15. Use of indirect object pronouns Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Le robaron el coche anoche Les van a quitar los instrumentos pronto They stole his car last night They’re going to take their instruments from them soon Le prohibieron alojarse en el hotel Gracias por pagarme el helado They banned her from staying at the hotel Thanks for paying for my ice cream Main menu

18 16. Past participles used as adjectives
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 16. Past participles used as adjectives Examples of past participles are ‘drawn’ from ‘draw’; ‘followed’ from ‘follow’ or ‘sold’ from ‘sell’. In Spanish the past participle is usually made like this: tomado/comido/vivido (taken/eaten/lived) It can also be used as an adjective. Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Las personas encuestadas prefieren una estrella a una hada Las alarmas instaladas emiten ruido si hay un fuego The people interviewed prefer a star to a fairy The installed alarms make a noise if there is a fire Uno de los atacados sigue en el hospital Uno de los detenidos se escapó One of those attacked is still in hospital 1 of those arrested escaped Main menu

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17. Lo + past participle ‘Lo’ is a difficult thing to give a definite translation to. It can generally be translated with an adjective as being ‘The...thing’ so ‘lo tonto’ = ‘the silly thing’ Used with a past participle it means ‘What was __’ ‘Lo decidido’= ‘What was decided’ Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Lo ocurrido es una tragedía Según lo reportado, la princesa está embarazada What happened is a tragedy According to what was reported, the princess is pregnant No llores, lo hecho está hecho Hay descuento de 50% sobre lo cotizado Don’t cry, what’s done is done There’s a discount of 50% on what is priced Main menu

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18. Lo + adjective ‘Lo’ is a difficult thing to give a definite translation to. It can generally be translated with an adjective as being ‘The...thing’ so ‘lo tonto’ = ‘the silly thing’ Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Lo mejor es cuando salen los bailadores Lo bueno es poder salir de paseo The best thing is when the dancers come out The good thing is being able to go for a walk Lo raro es que llueva en el verano Lo tonto es cuando ves una persona sin cinturón The stupid thing is when you see someone without a seatbelt The strange thing is that it rains in summer Main menu

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19. Lo + adjective + que This type of phrase means ‘how..’‘lo guapo que eres’=‘how handsome you are’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. No sabes lo feliz que estoy You don’t know how happy i am ¿No te das cuenta de lo ridículo que estás con esa ropa? Don’t you realise how ridiculous you look with those clothes? No sabes lo cómodo que es mi sillón You don’t know how comfortable my chair is Main menu

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20. Dejar de Although ‘dejar’ means ‘to leave/let’, dejar de means ‘to stop doing something’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Quiero dejar de fumar I want to stop smoking Los niños no dejaron de lanzar bolas de nieve todo el día The children never stopped throwing snowballs all day ¿Cuándo vas a dejar de romper mi corazón? When are you going to stop breaking my heart? Main menu

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21. Hace + time Although the verb ‘hacer’ means ‘to do/make’ , hace is also used in time expressions to mean ‘ago’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Hace 500 años, Enrique VIII era el rey 500 years ago, Henry Viii was the king Se fue a vivir a Dubai hace poco She went to live in Dubai a short time ago Hace mucho mucho tiempo vivía un dragón A long long time ago there lived a dragon Main menu

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22. Dejarse + infinitive ‘Dejarse’ means ‘to let oneself’ and it can be used with lots of infinitives in phrases. For example ‘Dejarse Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. No te dejes perder la oportunidad de entrar al museo egipto El chico se dejó besar por Isabella The boy let himself be kissed by Isabella Don’t let yourself miss the opportunity of going into the Egyptian museum No me dejo llevar por las tendencias de moda Se dejó engañar por su oponente He let himself be tricked by his opponent I don’t let myself get carried away with fashion trends Main menu

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23. Llevo + time Llevar normally means ‘to carry’, ‘to wear’; however when used with a time, it gives off the idea of ‘having spent X time doing something/being somewhere/being something’. Example – Llevo dos minutos de retraso – I am 2 minutes late Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Lleva una eternidad buscando una novia Llevo cinco minutos esperando el autobús I’ve been waiting 5 minutes for the bus He’s spent an eternity looking for a girlfriend Llevaba dos años allí cuando ocurrió el accidente La cena me lleva una hora I’d been there two years when the accident happened The dinner takes me an hour Main menu

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24. Hacer caso This verb means to ‘Pay attention to someone’ and is also used in the negative sense to ‘ignore someone’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Se lo dije al árbitro pero no me hizo caso I told the referee but he ignored me Es importante que hagas caso a tu médico It’s important you pay attention to your doctor No te voy a hacer caso en la oficina I’m going to ignore you in the office Main menu

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25. Querer decir These two verbs are fairly common and mean ‘to want’ and ‘to say’; however when they are put together they mean ‘to mean’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. No sé lo que quiere decir el mensaje I don’t know what this message means ¿Qué quiere decir ‘Alto’ en inglés? What does ‘alto mean in English? Esta señal quiere decir que hay una escuela a pocos metros This sign means that there’s a school a few metres away Main menu

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26. Reflexive verbs Reflexive verbs often express the idea of doing something to yourself (waking up/washing/combing etc). For example ‘Lavo el coche’ - ‘I wash the car’ BUT ‘Me lavo’ - ‘I wash myself’ Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Miguel se dedica a arreglar el jardín los lunes Tienes que organizarte un poco mejor Miguel dedicates himself to sorting the garden out on Mondays You have to organise yourself a bit better Mi nieto se cortó la rodilla jugando al fútbol Hay que afeitarte para una entrevista My grandson cut his knee playing football You have to shave for an interview Main menu

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27. Producirse This verb catches a lot of people out as it appears to look like a cognate ‘to produce’; however when this verb is reflective, it actually means ‘to take place’ or ‘to happen’. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Entre 1760 y 1830, en Gran Bretaña se produjo un gran crecimiento industrial Between 1760 and 1830 a huge growth in industry took place in Great Britain Se producirá un eclipse de sol hoy a las tres El sarampión se produce durante la niñez An eclipse of the sun will happen today at 3 Measles occurs during childhood Main menu

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28. Surgir This verb is similar to ‘producirse’ in that it is used to say something happened. It translates more as ‘to come up’ ‘to arise’ (a problem/an issue) Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Surgieron muchas nuevas ideas durante el concurso Many new ideas arose during the competition Unas peleas surgen como resultado del alcohol Some fights arise as a result of alcohol Me invitó pero algo surgió y no pude venir He invited me but something came up and i couldn’t go Main menu

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29. Hay que This is another phrase containing 2 very common words ‘Hay’ – ‘there is’ and ‘que’ – that; however when put together it means something completely different: ‘You must’. It is used for giving orders and advice. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. There are 3 tenses included Click to reveal answers. Hay que seguir una dieta equilibrada You have to follow a balanced diet No había que ser genio para entender a Einstein You didn’t have to be a genius to understand Einstein Habrá que cruzar el desierto You will have to cross the desert Main menu

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30. Tener que You should know that ‘tener’ means ‘to have’ ; however ‘tener que’ means ‘to have to’. Like ‘Hay que’, it is used for commands and advice. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Tienes que ir a la fiesta en desfraz You have to come to the party in disguise Los novios tendrán que abrir el baile en la boda The bride and groom will have to startthe dancing at the wedding ¿Tuviste que pagar por un nuevo parachoques? Did you have to pay for a new bumper? Main menu

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31. Echar part 1 ‘Echar’ is a verb that has lots and lots of meanings. It can be used in lots of phrases; however its main meanings are ‘to throw’, ‘to give’ and ‘to put’. Some of the following examples have other different meanings!! Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Echó la cabeza hacia atrás She threw her head back Los pescadores echaron la red The fishermen cast their net out Simón fue echada de la casa de su novia Simon was thrown out of his girlfriend’s house Main menu

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32. Echar part 2 These examples are a bit harder. Try to use the idea that ‘echar’ means ‘to somehow affect something’ or ‘to put something in another place’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. ¿Echas azúcar al café? Do you take/put sugar in your coffee? La bruja le echó una maldición The witch put a curse on him El hombre herido echó la culpa al joven conductor The injured man put the blame on the young driver Main menu

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33. Dar part 1 ‘Dar’ has even more uses than ‘echar’. Its main meaning is ‘to give’ but it is used in many different phrases and constructions. The meaning of ‘dar a’ is often ‘to open onto’ and ‘dar con’ often means ‘to hit on’/’to find’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. El dentista me dio hora para el viernes The dentist gave me an appointment for Friday Le dio mucha pena ver a los sin techo en su ciudad It made him very sad to see homeless people in his city Tenían un balcón que daba a una vista muy bonita They had a balcony which looked onto a very pretty view Main menu

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34. Dar part 2 These are 3 more phrases which use ‘dar’. Although you know ‘dar’ means ‘to give’, translate these into normal English you would use in everyday speech. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Creo que voy a dar un paseo por el parque I think i’m going to take a walk around the park Los científicos han dado con un antídoto para la enfermedad The scientists have come across an antidote to the disease Después de recibir la factura de teléfono, le dio una voz a su hijo After receiving the phone bill, he shouted at his son Main menu

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35. A menos que This is a phrase used with the subjunctive and it means ‘unless’ . Like other phrases, it contains very common words but you need to learn the whole phrase to understand the meaning. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. A menos que vayamos en bicicleta, no podemos llegar Unless we go by bike, we can’t get there No me llames a menos que haya un fuego Don’t call me unless there’s a fire No habrá postre; a menos que comas las verduras There will be no pudding; unless you eat your vegetables Main menu

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36. Personal a This often confuses students who first come across it and many students forget to put this into their written work – every time a person (or group of people) is the object of a verb, you need to put ‘a’ before them. This time try to translate from English to Spanish. Conocimos a sus padres después del colegio Tiene a su suegra en casa We met his parents after school He has his mother-in-law staying with him A los niños les encantan las piñatas Jorge llamó a su fontanero Children love piñatas Jorge called his plumber Main menu

39 37. Personal a at beginning of sentence
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 37. Personal a at beginning of sentence Spanish has different word order in sentences so sometimes the personal a appears at the beginning instead of in the middle. You may have noticed this in the last example on the previous page. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. A Marta y Juanita les encantan las manzanas Marta and Juanita love apples A mi novio le despidieron hace poco del trabajo My boyfriend was made redundant a short time ago A los mejicanos les gusta empezar el día con una sopa Mexicans like to start the day with soup Main menu

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38. Noun/Verb order In English, we almost always have the noun before the verb (John laughs’ The train is leaving); however in Spanish, it is very common to find the verb phrase coming before the noun. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Se quejan mucho las viejas generaciones The older generations complain a lot Han desaparecido dos cuadros de arte muy valiosos Two very valuable works of art have disappeared Iban y venían muchas personas durante la actuación Lots of people came and went during the performance Main menu

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39. lo/la/los/las Pronouns are words that replace nouns. In English they usually appear at the end of a sentence (I saw it) , (I like them); however in Spanish they usually appear at the start. Pronouns refer back to something already mentioned but because Spanish has masculine/feminine words the sentences I saw him & I saw her would be different: Lo vi/La vi; just like I saw them could be Los vi/Las vi. Try to choose the correct sentence 1-4 for each example. ¿Viste la nueva película 3D? ¿Viste las hermanas de Rosa? Did you see the new 3D film? Did you see Rosa’s sisters? 1. Sí, lo vi ayer Yes, I saw them yesterday Yes, I saw it yesterday 2. Sí, la vi ayer 3. Sí, los vi ayer ¿Viste a Sara y su marido? ¿Viste a Simón en el pueblo? 4. Sí, las vi ayer Did you see Sara and her husband? Did you see Simon in town? Yes, I saw them yesterday Yes I saw him yesterday Main menu

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40. Volverse Volver is a common verb meaning ‘to return’ but when it is reflexive (volverse), it means ‘to become’. You must be careful in exams to notice which version is used. The verb ‘volverse’ is used to describe changes in mood/character. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Se volvió loco de repente He went mad all of a sudden A veces los niños pueden volverse melindrosos con la comida Sometimes children can become picky with their food Si practicas la meditación, te volverás más tranquila If you practice meditaion, you’ll become more calm Main menu

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41. Ponerse Poner is a very common verb meaning ‘to put’; however when it is reflexive (ponerse) it also means ‘to become’. Like the previous verb, it is used to show how people’s emotions/states change. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Se puso enferma después de un muerdo de mosquito She became ill after a mosquito bite No te pongas así Don’t get like that Mi padre se pondrá enfadado conmigo si le gano al ajedrez My Dad will get angry with me if I beat him at chess Main menu

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42. Hacerse Hacer normally means ‘to do/make’; however when it is reflexive (hacerse), it also means ‘to become’. Unlike the 2 previous verbs, hacerse is used for more permanent things (jobs/religion etc) Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Esos 2 actores se están haciendo viejos Those 2 actors are getting old Se hicieron amigos durante el verano They became friends during the summer Voy a hacerme socio del club de golf I’m going to become a member of the golf club Main menu

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43. u & e In Spanish the words ‘or’ & ‘and’ are normally translated by ‘o’ & ‘y’. However, when ‘o’ appears before another o or ho and ‘y’ appears before e or he, these change to ‘u’ & e’. Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Los iglúes son construidos de nieve e hielo Vendemos productos de lujo e higiene Igloos are made of snow and ice We sell cleaning and hygiene products Los cazadores suelen buscar tigres u osos De una u otra manera, va a ganar The hunters usually look for tigers or bears One way or another, he’s going to win Main menu

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44. - ísimo In Spanish you can put the ending ‘ísimo’ onto adjectives to give the idea of ‘very’ / ‘extremely’. Often the adjective drops its final letter: pobre = poor but pobrísimo = very poor Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Las temperaturas en Marruecas fueron altísimas The temperatures in Morocco were very high La cuenta va a ser carísima The bill is going to be very expensive Mi padre conduce un larguísimo camión rojo My father drives an extremely long red lorry Main menu

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45. – azo ‘-azo’ is a painful suffix. It is added to words (usually body parts) to indicate a hit with that object. It can also be added to increase the power/emphasis of words. Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Puña = fist Le dio un puñetazo impresionante Se pegó un martillazo en la mano He gave him an impressive punch He hit himself in the hand with a hammer Marcó un golazo en el final El italiano sufrió un cabezazo del francés The Italian suffered a headbutt from the Frenchman He scored a great goal in the final Main menu

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46. Una y otra vez This phrase is used to mean ‘time and again’ so can be found when something is repeatedly done. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Una y otra vez se escapaba de la cárcel Time and again he escaped from jail Una y otra vez su ordenador se colgaba Time and time again his computer crashed Leyó la carta de amor una y otra vez She read the love letter time and time again Main menu

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47. Ya ‘Ya’ has many uses and you need to look at the context carefully to choose which one is correct. The most common translations are ‘already’ and ‘right now’. It also means ‘yet’ as long as it is NOT in a negative sentence. Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Preparados….listos….Ya! Ya terminé la primera de mis tareas Ready…Steady…Go! I already finished the first of my tasks Ya me tienes harta ¿Han llegado ya tus abuelos? I’m just about sick of you Have your grandparents arrived yet? Main menu

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48. Ya no When these two words are used together, they mean ‘no longer’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Ya no queda espacio en el contenedor There’s no space left in the recycling bin Ya no quiero casarme contigo I don’t want to marry you any more Ya no soy tan joven como antes I’m no longer as young as before Main menu

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49. Cada vez más/menos These phrases are used to indicate that something is becoming ‘more and more…’ or ‘less and less…’ Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. La chica esquió cada vez más rápido El pesista se hace cada vez más fuerte The girl skiied faster and faster The weightlifter is getting more and more strong Cada vez menos gente usa una máquina de escribir Mis resultados son cada vez peores My results are worse and worse Less and less people are using typewriters Main menu

52 50. El que/La que/Los que/Las que
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 50. El que/La que/Los que/Las que When Spanish people want to identify people/things that have done something or are something, they use the phrases above. Their translations are normally ‘the one(s) that’ or ‘those that’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Apoyo a los que se niegan a trabajar por él I support those that refuse to work for him Soy yo el que siempre llega tarde I am the one who always arrives late Las que tienen éxito son las que ahorran su dinero The ones who are successful are those that save their money Main menu

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51. Ver /Oír + infinitive Ver and oír are 2 common verbs meaning ‘to see’ and ‘to hear’. Sometimes they appear with infinitives next to them. In this case, the infinitive is used to show the action that was seen or heard. Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Vimos cantar a Shakira en Madrid Oigo acercarse el tren We saw Shakira sing in Madrid I hear the train approaching Le vi interrogar al testigo durante el juicio Les oí gritar por miedo I saw him interrogate the witness during the trial I heard them shout in fear Main menu

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52. Sí que This phrase has 2 common words: ‘yes’ and ‘that’. However, when they are put together they have the meaning of ‘of course’ or ‘really’. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Sí que puedes fumar en tu despacho Of course you can smoke in your office Sí que aprobaste tu examen Of course you passed your exam Ahora sí que vas a poder defenderte Now you’re really going to be able to defend yourself Main menu

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53. Lo que This is a very common expression but lots of students still get confused by it. You could translate it as ‘the thing that’ but it is better translated as just ‘what’. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Siempre hacemos lo que quiere mi mujer We always do what my wife wants ¿Has notado lo que ha ganado en autoestima? Have you noticed what she’s gained in self esteem? No entiendo lo que han puesto en el examen I don’t understand what they’ve put in the exam Main menu

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54. Quedar part 1 Like ‘dar’, ‘echar’ and other verbs, ‘quedar’ is used for many different things. Its meanings can include ‘to arrange’, ‘to agree’, ‘to end up’ and ‘to be left’, In the following 2 slides, you will see 6 sentences which you need to try to translate into English. Click to reveal answers. Miles de familias quedaron sin hogar después de las inundaciones Thousands of families were left homeless after the floods Quedamos a las ocho a la casa We’ll meet at 8 at the house Le quedó una cicatriz después del accidente He was left with a scar after the accident Main menu

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55. Quedar part 2 ‘Quedar’ is used for many different things. Its meanings can include ‘to arrange’, ‘to agree’, ‘to end up’ and ‘to be left’ Try to translate these 3 sentences into English. Click to reveal answers. Quedaron en no decirle nada They agreed not to tell him anything Todavía nos quedan dos horas de clase – Qué rollazo! We’ve still got two hours of class left – How boring! El chico quedó en ridículo The boy made a fool of himself Main menu

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56. Quedarse The reflexive verb ‘quedarse’ also has lots of different uses. The most common is ‘to stay’ but it can also mean ‘to be going’ and ‘to end up’ Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Te estás quedando calvo Me voy a quedar en el hotel Waldorf You’re going bald I’m going to stay in the Waldorf hotel Se quedó dormido durante sus estudios Quédate allí, no me hables! She fell asleep during her studies Stay there, don’t speak to me Main menu

59 57. De manera que/De modo que
SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 57. De manera que/De modo que These 2 phrases are used with subjunctive & indicative. With the indicative they mean ‘with the result that’ but with the subjunctive they mean ‘so that’. In English however, we’d probably use ‘so’ for both phrases. Below there are 4 sentences. Translate them into English and decide if they are indicative or subjunctive before you guess the correct translation. Lo he explicado varias veces de modo que lo entienden muy bien Estaba disfrazada de manera que nadie le reconociera I’ve explained many times so (with the result that) they understand it well. She was in disguise so that nobody recognised her El líder puede educar a los miembros del equipo de modo que sepan qué hacer Algo en la mente de los hombres es distinto de manera que juegan mejor al ajedrez The leader can educate the team members so that they know what to do. Something in men’s brains is different so (with the result that) they play chess better Main menu

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58. Resultar This verb looks like it could be a cognate but it’s not really translated as ‘result’. It usually means ‘to work out’, ‘to prove’ & ‘to turn out’ and is used with outcomes. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Resultó ser un malentendido It turned out to be a misunderstanding No te resulta muy favorecedor el vestido The dress doesn’t really flatter you Me resulta muy simpática I think she’s very nice Main menu

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59. Seguir + gerund You should know that ‘seguir’ means ‘to follow’ and ‘to continue’. A gerund is an –ing word (doing/eating/running). You can use use seguir + gerund to give the idea of ‘keeps doing something’. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Londres sigue siendo la ciudad europea más cara London continues to be the most expensive European city Sigue creyendo que ganará las elecciones He continues believing he’ll win the elections Seguirán jugando a pesar del tiempo They’ll continue playing despite the weather Main menu

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60. Un centenar /millar de You’ve probably learnt that ‘cientos’ means 100s and ‘miles’ means 1000s. These 2 words are similar in meaning: ‘centenar’ = about 100 & millar = about 1000. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Había un millar de seguidores en la plaza There were about a thousand supporters in the square Centenares de personas fueron rescatadas Hundreds of people were rescued La tormenta desplazó a millares en Méjico The storm displaced thousands in Mexico Main menu

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61. Sea lo que sea……. If you want to translate phrases that contain ‘whatever’ (whatever they say / whatever they do), you can use the subjunctive with ‘lo que’ or ‘donde’...etc Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Diga lo que diga tu profesor, los romanos eran crueles y sanguinarios Whatever your teacher says, the romans were cruel and bloodthirsty Vaya donde vaya, no va a encontrar un sitio mejor Wherever he goes, he won’t find a better place Sea lo que sea el precio, debo comprar este vestido Whatever the price is, I must buy this dress Main menu

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62. Sea lo que sea.. part 2 Using the information on the previous slide, try to figure out what these 3 sentences mean in English. Click to reveal answers. Llegue como llegue, será un gran espectáculo However she arrives, it will be a great sight Hagas lo que hagas, no te rías de ella Whatever you do, don’t laugh at her Piensen lo que piensen, no les hago caso Whatever they think, I ignore them Main menu

65 63. Tener que ver con You met lots of ‘tener phrases’ before but maybe not as long as this one. It comes up a lot in texts and it means ‘to have to do with’ ‘to be related to’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. No quiero tener nada ver con tu disputa I don’t want to have anything to do with your argument ¿Qué tiene que ver que sólo tenga tres patos What does it matter that it only has 3 legs La película tenía que ver con la selva The film was about the jungle Main menu

66 64. A corto plazo / A largo plazo
The word ‘plazo’ means ‘a period of time’ and mustn’t be confused with ‘plaza’. There are many phrases used with ‘plazo’ but the 2 above are very common. Try to guess the meanings of the 3 following sentences. Click to reveal answers. Nuestro objetivo a corto plazo es atacar el castillo Our short term objective is to attack the castle A largo plazo, el efecto invernadero causará mucho daño In the long term. the green house effect will cause much damage El plazo termina mañana The deadline is tomorrow Main menu

67 65. Phrases with body parts
Many phrases use body parts in them. Most of the time you can guess what they might mean but other times they are a little harder to remember. El pelo La cabeza Los ojos La oreja La nariz La boca El cuello Tiene ojo para los negocios La espalda He has an eye for business El brazo La mano El estómago Lo atacaron por la espalda He was attacked from behind (the back) La pierna La rodilla Los pies No puedo tenerme en pie I can hardly stand Main menu

68 66. Phrases with body parts
Underneath are 3 more phrases with body parts in them. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Se puso de pie para aceptar el premio He stood up to accept the prize ¿Me echas un ojo al perrito mientras salgo a fumar? Will you keep an eye on my puppy while I go smoke? La familia caminaron del brazo The family walked arm in arm Main menu

69 67. Soler This verb has no direct English translation but it basically means ‘to normally do something’. It is used very often in Spanish and will probably turn up in your exam somewhere – try to remember it and pick it out when it appears. No suelo comer los helados pero hoy es mi cumpleaños I don’t normally eat ice creams but today is my birthday Las tortugas suelen vivir para cién años Tortoises normally live for a 100 years El profesor solía meterse sobre una caja para hablar The teacher always used to stand on a box to speak Main menu

70 68. A eso de This phrase is almost always used with time and is used to mean ‘about’. Try to translate these 2 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. A eso de las siete habrá un simulacro de incendio At around 7 o’clock, there will be a fire drill A eso de las cinco bajaron a desayunar At about 5 o’clock, they went down to breakfast Main menu

71 69. Volver a + infinitive You’ve already seen ‘volver’ – ‘to return’ and ‘volverse’ – ‘to become’. There is also the verb ‘volver a + infinitive’ which means ‘to do something again’ or ‘to go back to doing something’. Ha vuelto a tomar drogas He has started taking drugs again Volví a leer el libro porque era muy interesante I read the book again because it was very interesting No volveré a trabajar de noche I won’t go back to working at night Main menu

72 70. Para + infinitive (part 1)
An infinitive is a ‘to word’ (comer = to eat / levantarse = to get up..) We use them in lots of phrases especially as the 2nd verb in a sentence. There are 3 examples below. Me gusta jugar al tenis. I like to play tennis. Necesito ver al médico. I need to see the doctor. Es más fácil ser hombre It’s easier to be a man However when the ‘to word’ (infinitive) is the purpose or reason for something, it is used with ‘para’. Look at the differences between the 2 pairs of sentences below. Which sentences have an infinitive as a purpose or reason? Voy a comprar un regalo. Voy al centro para comprar un regalo. I’m going to buy a present I’m going to town to buy a present Entrar en este bar cuesta 10 euros. Para entrar en un bar, necesitas tener 18 años Going into this bar costs 10 euros To go into a bar, you need to be 18 years old Main menu

73 71 Para + infinitive (Part 2)
So remember that when an infinitive is a purpose/reason for something, it needs to be used with para. A good way of remembering would be that you need to use para for sentences where ‘in order to’ could be used (I’m going to town in order to buy a gift) This time try to translate these 4 phrases into Spanish. Click to reveal answers. To be convincing, you’ll need a mask. I work to pay for my studies Para ser convincente, necesitarás una máscara Trabajo para pagar mis estudios I love to go fishing You need a license to go fishing Me encanta ir de pesca Necesitas un permiso para pescar Main menu

74 72. A partir de This is a phrase used with time – it looks like a verb but as a whole phrase it means ‘from’ in the sense of ‘from a certain point in time’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. A partir de entonces no volvimos a hablarnos From that moment on we didn’t speak to each other A partir de hoy no se puede conducir en la ciudad From today, you’re not able to drive in the city A partir de junio de 2002, Bhutto era la primera ministra de Paquistán From June 2002, Bhutto was the prime minister of Pakistan Main menu

75 73. A través de This phrase is very common but is sometimes difficult to understand as it has many meanings. The 3 most common translations are ‘by’ ‘through’ and ‘across’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Pusieron barricadas a través de la calle They put up barricades across the street Me enteré a través del periódico I learnt it from the newspaper Escuché a través de la puerta I listened through the door Main menu

76 74. Un rato This word has nothing to do with mice and rats; it’s actually a time phrase used to mean ‘a while’ or ‘time. Often this appears in exams to catch you out so be sure to notice. Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Fue al cine hace un rato Me interrumpe a cada rato He went to the cinema a while ago He keeps interrupting me Pasé un mal rato durante la fiesta En mis ratos libres hago la natación I had a bad time during the party In my spare time I go swimming Main menu

77 75. Cuanto antes This is another phrase which combines 2 common words: cuanto – how much & antes – before. When these are used together they mean ‘as soon as possible’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. La nota dijo ‘Ven, cuanto antes’ The note said, ‘Come, as soon as possible’ Necesito un trabajo; cuanto antes, mejor I need a job, the sooner the better Te llamaré cuanto antes I’ll call you as soon as possible Main menu

78 76. Cuanto You’ve come across ‘¿Cuánto?’ as a question word meaning ‘How much?’. On its own without the accent however, it will mean ‘as much as’ or ‘as many’ Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Llévate cuanta comida quieras Grita cuanta quieras, nadie te va a hacer caso Take as much food as you want Shout as much as you want, nobody will pay you any attention Gasta cuanto tiene Cuanto más seamos, mejor He spends everything he has got The more of us there are, the better Main menu

79 77. Cuando/En cuanto + subjunctive
When we refer to something in the future that hasn’t happened yet in English we use the present tense (When I get to the bank); however in Spanish the subjunctive is used with any phrases like this. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Llámame en cuanto llegues a Japón Call me as soon as you arrive in Japan Cuando gane la lotería, voy a mudarme a China When I win the lottery, I’m going to move to China Tan pronto como termines en el jardín, ven a comer As soon as you finish in the garden, come and eat Main menu

80 78. De repente This phrase has nothing to do with repenting. It is an adverb and it means ‘suddenly’. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. De repente el pueblito quedó abandonado Suddenly the village was left deserted De repente surgió un nuevo estilo llamado Punk All of a sudden a new style emerged called Punk Oí un ruido de repente I heard a sound suddenly Main menu

81 79. Desde ‘Desde’ is used to mean ‘since’ or ‘from’ and can be used for places and time; sometimes when you learn it with time 1st, the meaning isn’t clear when it’s used with places.. It is also used in lots of phrases as well as on its own. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Estuvo en Londres desde el lunes hasta el jueves She was in London from Monday and Thursday No puedo comer desde que María se fue I can’t eat since María left Nos mudamos desde el centro hasta las afueras We moved from the centre to the outskirts Main menu

82 80. Echar de menos You already came across ‘Echar’ and its many meanings before. When it is used with ‘de menos’, it means ‘to miss’. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Echo de menos a mi abuelo, se murió hace poco I miss my grandfather, he died a short time ago Vuelve pronto, te echamos de menos Come back soon, we miss you No voy a echar de menos a estos bichos I’m not going to miss these bugs Main menu

83 81. En cuanto a You’ve already come across ‘en cuanto’ which means ‘as soon as’; however ‘en cuanto a’ means ‘as for’. Try to remember the slight difference. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. En cuanto a ir al cine, me lo pensaré más tarde As for going to the cinema, I’ll think about it later En cuanto a los coches, a mí me gusta el Fiat viejo As cars go, I like the old Fiat En cuanto a los animales, sólo admitimos los perros guía As for animals, we only allow guide dogs in Main menu

84 82. Me cae bien/mal... You should have learnt the verb caer ‘to fall’. It is also used in giving opinions on things so ‘me cae bien’ means ‘someone seems nice to you’. It is a verb which works like ‘gustar’ & ‘encantar’. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Tu primo me cae muy bien I really like your cousin Me caen un poco mal los escorpión I don’t like Scorpios very much Me cae muy antipática la jefa The boss seems a bit mean to me Main menu

85 83. Hace falta ‘Hace’ appears in lots of phrases (ago/weather…). It appears in the phrase ‘hace falta’ where it means something is needed/required. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Hacen falta dos vasos más para Marta y Juana We need 2 more glasses for Marta and Juana Hace falta que lleves un traje para la entrevista It’s necessary for you to wear a suit to the interview Para cocinar al estilo mejicano, hace falta usar pimientos To cook in the mexican style, you need to use peppers Main menu

86 84. Acaso ‘Acaso’ is used in several ways but it can be used to make phrases sarcastic or rhetorical. For example, the simple question ‘Do you want cake?’ can be made into ‘You want cake then’ by adding ‘acaso’. It can also be translated as maybe or used in phrases ‘por si acaso’ – just in case & ‘si acaso’ – if. Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. ¿Acaso no te lo advertí ? Llámame antes de venir por si acaso no estoy Didn’t i warn you? Call me before you come just in case I’m out Si acaso ves a Marta, dale estos flores ¿ Acaso estás nervioso cobarde? If by chance you see Marta, give her these flowers Are you nervous maybe, you wimp? Main menu

87 85. Primero que nada/ Sobre todo
This 1st phrase ‘primero que nada’ is quite common and means ‘First of all’ and ‘sobre todo’ means ‘above all’. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Me gustan los cóctels: sobre todo los martinis I like cocktails, especially martinis Primero que nada, hay que esuchar a la azafata First of all, you have to listen to the air hostess Hay mucho paisaje bonito en Inglaterra, sobre todo en el norte There’s lots of pretty countryside in England, above all in the North Main menu

88 86. A la vez / Al mismo tiempo
These 2 phrases have the same meaning of ‘At the same time’. The 1st phrase ‘A la vez’ is often a phrase that students don’t recognise or can’t work out. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Canta a la vez que toca la guitarra He sings while he plays the guitar Mujeres pueden hacer más cosas a la vez que hombres Women can do more things at once than men Leila y yo nos licenciamos al mismo tiempo Leila and I graduated at the same time Main menu

89 87. Acabar de You should know that ‘acabar’ means ‘to finish’; however there is a common verb ‘acabar de’ which means ‘to have just’. This is something that often appears in exams as it is not easy to guess the meaning. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. No gracias, acabo de desayunar No thanks, I’ve just eaten Acababa de meterme en la cama cuando se me ocurrió una idea I had just gone to bed when I had an idea Mi novia acaba de llegar del aeropuerto My girlfriend has just arrived from the airport Main menu

90 88. Premiar/Regalar/Retratar…..
Sometimes you will find nouns can occur as verbs. If you’re unsure of a verb but it looks like a noun you recognise, try to use this information to guess the maning of the sentence. Premio = Prize Regalo = Present Retratar - Portrait Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Le premiaron por ayudar a los pobres They gave her a prize for helping the poor Regalaban globos en la playa They used to gift free ballons in the beach Retrató a su hermano durante las vacaciones He painted a portrait of his brother during the holidays Main menu

91 89. Sobrar You’ve probably come across ‘sobre’ which means ‘above’ . This verb ‘sobrar’ is linked to this word, it is the opposite of ‘faltar’ ‘to be necessary’. ‘Sobrar’ means to be left over’ Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. A mí no me sobra dinero I don’t have money to throw around Nos sobra espacio en nuestra casa We have plenty of space in our house Sobró mucha comida después de navidad There was lots of food left over after christmas Main menu

92 90. Tan …. como This is another common phrase used to compare things that are the same. It translates as ‘as…as’ . The adjective in the middle should agree with the 1st thing being compared. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Miguel no es tan inteligente como su hermano Miguel is not as clever as his brother No soy tan fuerte como pensaba I’m not as strong as I thought Motivar a los estudiantes es tan importante como enseñar bien Motivating students is as important as teaching well Main menu

93 91. Tanto como ‘Tanto como’ is similar to ‘tan como’ but its used with nouns and means ‘so many…as’ or ‘so much…as’, or even ‘as much as’. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. No tengo tanto dinero como tú I haven’t got as much money as you Tanto los hombres como las mujeres pueden ser enfermeros Men can be nurses just as much as women A causa de la deforestación no hay tantas selvas como antes Because of deforestation, there are not so many jungles as before Main menu

94 92. Este/Ese/Aquel Todavía no me acuerdo de los nombres de tus tres amigas. Bueno, esta mujer aquí se llama Beatriz, esa chica cortando la tarta es Marta y aquella mujer con el bebé se llama Jani. These 3 words are called demonstrative adjectives and translate as ‘This’ ‘That’ and ‘That over there’. Each has feminine and plural forms. Look at the 2 dialogues & pay attention to the positions of the women referred to. I still don’t remember the names of your friends. Well, this woman here is called Beatriz, that girl cutting the cake is Marta and that woman over there with the baby is called Jani. Main menu

95 93. A lo mejor This is another phrase which is made of familiar words but means something different together. ‘A lo mejor’ translates as ‘maybe’ or ‘perhaps’. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. A lo mejor este verano vamos a Italia Maybe this summer we’ll go to Italy A lo mejor ha entrado un ladrón en la oficina Perhaps a thief has come into the office A lo mejor debería comprar un mapa Maybe I should buy a map Main menu

96 94. A no ser que ‘A no ser que’ means the same as ‘a menos que’ – unless. They both take the subjunctive. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Quedaremos en casa a no ser que haga sol We’ll stay at home unless it’s sunny A no ser que encuentre mi pasaporte, no puedo ir Unless I can find my passport, I can’t go A no ser que me descubran, me quedaré en el bosque Unless they discover me, I will stay in the wood Main menu

97 95. -ito Have you noticed how women who are married are called ‘Señora’ Mrs but unmarried women are called ‘Señorita’ Miss. Señorita is an example of a dimunitive (something that is a smaller version) Just add ito/ita to nouns. Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Tengo un perrito que se llama Boris Juanito lloró su primer día en el colegio I have a puppy called Boris Little Juan cried on his 1st day at school Llevo a mi hijo en cochecito Es pequeñito pero es fortísimo I take my son around in a pram (little car) He’s absolutely tiny but he’s very strong Main menu

98 96. Dondequiera/Cualquiera/Quienquiera
These 3 phrases are linked to question words ‘¿Dónde?’, ¿Cuál? and ‘¿Quién? (where?/which?/who?) but are used to give the idea of something more vague (wherever / whichever, any / whoever) . These phrases also take the subjunctive. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Dondequiera que vayas, estaré contigo. Wherever you go, I will be with you De cualquiera forma que se haga, te va a criticar However you do it, he’s going to criticise you Quienquiera que quiera probar ropa debe ir al probador Whoever wants to try on clothes needs to go to the fitting room Main menu

99 97. Tampoco ‘Tampoco’ means the opposite of ‘también’. It translates as ‘neither’ or ‘either’. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. No he estado en Roma ni tampoco en Paris I’ve not been in Rome, or in Paris either Ese idiota tampoco va a resolver el misterio That idiot isn’t going to solve the mystery either Ellos tampoco saben el secreto They don’t know the secret either Main menu

100 98. Todo el mundo / Todas las partes
These 2 phrases are very common but need to be understood as a whole instead of 1 word at a time. ‘Todo el mundo’ means ‘everyone’ whereas ‘todas las partes’ means ‘everywhere’. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. No todo el mundo tiene gusto para vestirse Not everyone has fashion sense Llega la primavera y por todas partes se ven flores Spring arrives and you see flowers everywhere Todo el mundo tiene derecho a votar Everyone has the right to vote Main menu

101 99. Demás ‘Demás’ is used to mean ‘the rest’, ‘the remaining’ or ‘the others’. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Me dio uno y se quedó con los demás He gave me one and kept the rest Me gusta la lámpara, todo lo demás es basura I like the lamp, everything else is rubbish Josefina habla y los demás tenemos que callarnos Josefina speaks and the rest of us have to shut up Main menu

102 / ni....ni When you see o….o in sentences or ni…ni, they mean ‘either…or’ & neither...nor. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. O mañana o jueves, iremos al circo Either tomorrow or Thursday, we’ll go to the circus Para mi próximo quiero o un Porsche o un Ferrari For my next car I want either a Porsche or a Ferrari Ni me gusta, ni me desgusta I neither like it nor dislike it Main menu

103 And finally...... You can click on the box below (in slide show view) to practise all the phrases you have learnt in this presentation.


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