Presentación del tema: "Badly behaved Spanish! Sometimes in Languages, you come across phrases that just dont seem translatable, or phrases whose meaning just doesnt appear obvious."— Transcripción de la presentación:
Badly behaved Spanish! Sometimes in Languages, you come across phrases that just dont seem translatable, or phrases whose meaning just doesnt appear obvious to you. Remember back when you started Spanish... learning that tengo means i have? Remember a few weeks after that... discovering Tengo ocho años means I am 8 years old ? (I have 8 years?????) Confusing? This presentation will help you to remember 100+ phrases like the one above and hopefully give you some help in figuring things out for yourself when you do reading exams or exercises. Go into slide show view on slide 2 and navigate your way around the presentation in this way. Each mouse click on a slide will reveal the English meaning BUT try to guess what the meaning is BEFORE you click. The pumpkin will take you back to the title screen (slide 2)
Please enter slide-show view to begin and click a number Badly behaved Spanish!
Main menu 1. Tener phrases – Part 1 Tener normally means to have so you may be forgiven for thinking that its a nice, easy-to-understand verb. Unfortunately, tener is used in loads of phrases where we would use to be in English. See how many you can match up to the pics. 1. Tener hambre 2. Tener sed 3. Tener siete años 4. Tener éxito 5. Tener calor 6. Tener frío 7. Tener ganas de vomitar 8. Tener miedo 9. Tener sueño 10. Tener prisa 11. Tener razón To be hungry To be thirsty To be 7 years old to be successful to be hot to be cold To want to be sick To be scared To be tired to be in a hurry to be right/correct SHIFT+F5 for slide show view
Main menu 2. Tener phrases – Part 2 Blancanieves tenía mucho sueño No me pares, que tengo mucha prisa Voy a tener seis años en noviembre Juanita cree que siempre tiene razón Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Snow White was very tired Juanita thinks she is always right Dont stop me, Im in a rush Im going to be 6 years old in november SHIFT+F5 for slide show view
Main menu 3. Tener phrases – Part 3 Las pirañas tienen hambre a menudo Cuando corren en el desierto, es normal que los atletas tengan sed Ella no me quiere - tengo ganas de llorar Tengo calor – voy a quitarme la chaqueta Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Piranhas are often hungryIm hot – Im going to take off my jacket When they run in the desert, its normal for the athletes to be thirsty She doesnt love me – I want to cry SHIFT+F5 for slide show view
Main menu 4. Ojalá Ojalá pudiera volar Ojalá hubiera comprado una nueva taza Ojalá sea algo caro This phrase comes for an arabic religious word meaning God willing; although you could also translate it as I wish / I hope. Its used with the subjunctive. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. I wish i could fly I hope its something expensive I wish i had bought a new cup SHIFT+F5 for slide show view
Main menu 5. Susans / The cats / Japans Las joyas de la reina de Sheba Los lagartos de la isla de Gran Canaria La gente del barrio se reúne en el parque In English we express possession by using apostrophe + s (Japa ns president / Susa ns house); however in Spanish they always use de(belonging to) (El presidente de Japón) (La casa de Susan). The Queen of Sheba s jewelsThe neighbourhoods people meet in the park The island of Gran Canaria s lizards Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Cuatro camiones de cinco toneladas de capacidad Four 5-tonne lorries SHIFT+F5 for slide show view
Main menu 6. Passive use of se Part 1 Llama a su madre cada noche En América hacen la tarta con manzanas La lasaña se hace con queso La niña se llama Beatriz Whats the difference between llama and se llama? hace and se hace? In Spanish, when you want to express the idea of something being done/being called/being said, you would use SE + 3 rd person singular or plural of a verb. She calls her mother every nightThe girl is called Beatriz In America they make the pie with apples Lasagne is made with cheese ACTIVE - CALLINGPASSIVE – BEING CALLED ACTIVE - MAKINGPASSIVE – BEING MADE SHIFT+F5 for slide show view
Main menu 7. Passive use of se part 2 En el pasado se sabía poco de la astronomía Los españoles se consideran católicosJirafa no se escribe con una g en español In the past, little was known about astronomy It is said that there are aliens on Mars Spanish people are considered to be catholic Giraffe is not written with a g in Spanish Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Se dice que hay extraterrestres en el Marte SHIFT+F5 for slide show view
Main menu 8. Impersonal use of se No se permite fumar en los bars Antes, se entraba por la puerta trasera Se tiene que controlar las emociones No se debe comer con prisa In Spanish, we also see an impersonal use of se with 3 rd person singular/plural verbs. It is very similar to the passive use and can be translated in English as one can(se puede) one must (se debe) one has to (se tiene que) Smoking is not allowed ( one cant smoke) in bars One shouldnt eat too quickly Before, one used to go in by the backdoor One has to control their emotions SHIFT+F5 for slide show view
Main menu 9. Verbs like gustar & encantar Normally verbs work like this….You begin with an infinitive… COMER – TO EAT. Then you change the endings according to who is performing the action. Como – I eat Comes – You eat Come – He/She eats Comemos – We eat Coméis – You (pl) eat Comen – They eat However, some verbs like gustar/encantar/interesar work a little differently. With these verbs, its the thing being liked/loved/interesting that controls the verb ending. So really the verb gustar means to please, encantar means to enchant interesar means to be interest. Click the video beneath and listen to the lyrics of the song below. Notice that although it is the same person doing all the liking, the verb still changes according to what he likes/what is likeable. Lyrics start at 0:24 of song. See the literal translation on the right (sounds silly doesnt it) SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Me gustan los aviones, me gustas tu. Me gusta viajar, me gustas tu. Me gusta la mañana, me gustas tu. Me gusta el viento, me gustas tu. Me gusta soñar, me gustas tu. Me gusta la mar, me gustas tu. Planes are likeable to me, you are likable to me Travelling is likeable to me. you are likable to me The morning is likeable to me, you are likeable to me The wind is likeable to me, you are likeable to me Sleeping is likeable to me, you are likeable to me The sea is likeable to me, you are likeable to me
Main menu 10. Verbs like gustar & encantar Me gusta So lets have a look at 18 sentences, what do you think they mean? I like it We like it You(pl) like it They like it SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Te gusta Le gusta Nos gusta Les gusta Os gusta You like it He/She likes it Me gusto Te gusto Le gusto Nos gusto Les gusto Os gusto I like myself We like me???? You(pl) like me They like me You like me He/She likes me Me gustan Te gustan Le gustan Nos gustan Les gustan Os gustan We like them You(pl) like them They like them You like them He/She likes them I like them So, with verbs like gustar, it is not who is liking that changes the verb...it is what is being liked. What do you think these 3 sentences mean? 1.) Le encantan2.) Les gustamos3.) Le gustas He/She loves them They like us He/She likes you
Main menu 11. Verbs like gustar & encantar ¿Te parece feo este vestido? Nos hace falta otro coche No le interesan mucho los estudios Some of the other verbs that work like gustar are: interesar(to be interesting), molestar(to be annoying), parecer(to appear/to seem), faltar (to be needed) Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Does this dress look ugly to you ? Shes not very interested in her studies It annoyed him to have to buy a new wheel We need another car SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Le molestó tener que comprar otra rueda
Main menu 12. Al + infinitive Al oír el timbre, los estudiantes van a sus clases Al llegar al aeropuerto, alquila un coche Al ver la factura, estaba chocado Al ver a su oponente, tenía mucho miedo Al + an infinitive is used in Spanish to get across the idea of when something happens/ upon happening or on happening. It can be used with instructions or descriptions of events. Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Upon hearing the bell, the students go to classes Upon seeing his opponent, he felt very scared On arriving at the airport, hire a car When he saw the bill, he was shocked
Main menu 13. Expressing each other using reflexives Los gemelos se acompañan al trabajo Se conocieron en la oficina Nos ayudamos con los muebles Reflexive pronouns can be added to verbs to convey the idea of each other Reflexive pronouns are me, te, se, nos, os and se. EXAMPLE – Escribimos cartas de cuando en vez – We write letters sometimes Nos escribimos cartas a veces – We write letters to each other sometimes Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. The twins accompany each other to work We help each other with the furniture They met each other in the office SHIFT+F5 for slide show view
Main menu 14. Use of indirect object pronouns Mis padres me pagaron la renta en la universidad Me van a mirar el coche en un taller Me estaban gastando una broma Indirect pronouns are me te le nos os les They can be used in lots of ways, for example me can mean me to me for me for my my on me at me at my My parents paid for my rent at uni They were playing a joke on me Theyre going to look at my car in a garage SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 15. Use of indirect object pronouns Le robaron el coche anoche Gracias por pagar me el helado Le prohibieron alojarse en el hotel Les van a quitar los instrumentos pronto They stole his car last night Theyre going to take their instruments from them soon Thanks for paying for my ice cream They banned her from staying at the hotel SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 16. Past participles used as adjectives Las personas encuestadas prefieren una estrella a una hada Uno de los detenidos se escapó Uno de los atacados sigue en el hospital Las alarmas instaladas emiten ruido si hay un fuego Examples of past participles are drawn from draw; followed from follow or sold from sell. In Spanish the past participle is usually made like this: tom ado /com ido /viv ido (taken/eaten/lived) It can also be used as an adjective. The people interviewed prefer a star to a fairy The installed alarms make a noise if there is a fire 1 of those arrested escaped One of those attacked is still in hospital SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 17. Lo + past participle Lo ocurrido es una tragedía No llores, lo hecho está hecho Hay descuento de 50% sobre lo cotizado Según lo reportado, la princesa está embarazada Lo is a difficult thing to give a definite translation to. It can generally be translated with an adjective as being The...thing so lo tonto = the silly thing Used with a past participle it means What was __ Lo decidido= What was decided What happened is a tragedy According to what was reported, the princess is pregnant Dont cry, whats done is doneTheres a discount of 50% on what is priced SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 18. Lo + adjective Lo mejor es cuando salen los bailadores Lo raro es que llueva en el verano Lo tonto es cuando ves una persona sin cinturón Lo bueno es poder salir de paseo Lo is a difficult thing to give a definite translation to. It can generally be translated with an adjective as being The...thing so lo tonto = the silly thing The best thing is when the dancers come out The good thing is being able to go for a walk The strange thing is that it rains in summer The stupid thing is when you see someone without a seatbelt SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 19. Lo + adjective + que No sabes lo feliz que estoy No sabes lo cómodo que es mi sillón ¿No te das cuenta de lo ridículo que estás con esa ropa? This type of phrase means how..lo guapo que eres=how handsome you are You dont know how happy i am Dont you realise how ridiculous you look with those clothes? You dont know how comfortable my chair is SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 20. Dejar de Quiero dejar de fumar ¿Cuándo vas a dejar de romper mi corazón? Los niños no dejaron de lanzar bolas de nieve todo el día Although dejar means to leave/let, dejar de means to stop doing something I want to stop smoking The children never stopped throwing snowballs all day When are you going to stop breaking my heart? SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 21. Hace + time Hace 500 años, Enrique VIII era el rey Hace mucho mucho tiempo vivía un dragón Se fue a vivir a Dubai hace poco Although the verb hacer means to do/make, hace is also used in time expressions to mean ago 500 years ago, Henry Viii was the king She went to live in Dubai a short time ago A long long time ago there lived a dragon SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 22. Dejarse + infinitive El chico se dejó besar por Isabella No me dejo llevar por las tendencias de moda Se dejó engañar por su oponente No te dejes perder la oportunidad de entrar al museo egipto The boy let himself be kissed by Isabella Dont let yourself miss the opportunity of going into the Egyptian museum I dont let myself get carried away with fashion trends He let himself be tricked by his opponent SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Dejarse means to let oneself and it can be used with lots of infinitives in phrases. For example Dejarse Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 23. Llevo + time Llevo cinco minutos esperando el autobús Llevaba dos años allí cuando ocurrió el accidente Lleva una eternidad buscando una novia Llevar normally means to carry, to wear; however when used with a time, it gives off the idea of having spent X time doing something/being somewhere/being something. Example – Llevo dos minutos de retraso – I am 2 minutes late Ive been waiting 5 minutes for the bus Hes spent an eternity looking for a girlfriend Id been there two years when the accident happened SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. La cena me lleva una hora The dinner takes me an hour
Main menu 24. Hacer caso Se lo dije al árbitro pero no me hizo caso No te voy a hacer caso en la oficina Es importante que hagas caso a tu médico This verb means to Pay attention to someone and is also used in the negative sense to ignore someone I told the referee but he ignored me Its important you pay attention to your doctor Im going to ignore you in the office SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 25. Querer decir No sé lo que quiere decir el mensaje Esta señal quiere decir que hay una escuela a pocos metros ¿Qué quiere decir Alto en inglés? These two verbs are fairly common and mean to want and to say; however when they are put together they mean to mean I dont know what this message means What does alto mean in English? This sign means that theres a school a few metres away SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 26. Reflexive verbs Miguel se dedica a arreglar el jardín los lunes Mi nieto se cortó la rodilla jugando al fútbolHay que afeitarte para una entrevista Tienes que organizarte un poco mejor Reflexive verbs often express the idea of doing something to yourself (waking up/washing/combing etc). For example Lavo el coche - I wash the car BUT Me lavo - I wash myself Miguel dedicates himself to sorting the garden out on Mondays You have to organise yourself a bit better My grandson cut his knee playing footballYou have to shave for an interview SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 27. Producirse Entre 1760 y 1830, en Gran Bretaña se produjo un gran crecimiento industrial Se producirá un eclipse de sol hoy a las tresEl sarampión se produce durante la niñez This verb catches a lot of people out as it appears to look like a cognate to produce; however when this verb is reflective, it actually means to take place or to happen. Between 1760 and 1830 a huge growth in industry took place in Great Britain Measles occurs during childhoodAn eclipse of the sun will happen today at 3 SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 28. Surgir Surgieron muchas nuevas ideas durante el concurso Me invitó pero algo surgió y no pude venir Unas peleas surgen como resultado del alcohol This verb is similar to producirse in that it is used to say something happened. It translates more as to come up to arise (a problem/an issue) Many new ideas arose during the competition Some fights arise as a result of alcohol He invited me but something came up and i couldnt go SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 29. Hay que Hay que seguir una dieta equilibrada Habrá que cruzar el desierto No había que ser genio para entender a Einstein This is another phrase containing 2 very common words Hay – there is and que – that; however when put together it means something completely different: You must. It is used for giving orders and advice. You have to follow a balanced diet You didnt have to be a genius to understand Einstein You will have to cross the desert SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. There are 3 tenses included. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 30. Tener que Tienes que ir a la fiesta en desfraz ¿Tuviste que pagar por un nuevo parachoques? Los novios tendrán que abrir el baile en la boda You should know that tener means to have ; however tener que means to have to. Like Hay que, it is used for commands and advice. You have to come to the party in disguise The bride and groom will have to startthe dancing at the wedding Did you have to pay for a new bumper? SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 31. Echar part 1 Echó la cabeza hacia atrás Simón fue echada de la casa de su novia Los pescadores echaron la red Echar is a verb that has lots and lots of meanings. It can be used in lots of phrases; however its main meanings are to throw, to give and to put. Some of the following examples have other different meanings!! She threw her head back The fishermen cast their net out Simon was thrown out of his girlfriends house SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 32. Echar part 2 ¿Echas azúcar al café? El hombre herido echó la culpa al joven conductor La bruja le echó una maldición These examples are a bit harder. Try to use the idea that echar means to somehow affect something or to put something in another place Do you take/put sugar in your coffee? The witch put a curse on him The injured man put the blame on the young driver SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 33. Dar part 1 El dentista me dio hora para el viernes Tenían un balcón que daba a una vista muy bonita Le dio mucha pena ver a los sin techo en su ciudad Dar has even more uses than echar. Its main meaning is to give but it is used in many different phrases and constructions. The meaning of dar a is often to open onto and dar con often means to hit on/to find The dentist gave me an appointment for Friday It made him very sad to see homeless people in his city They had a balcony which looked onto a very pretty view SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 34. Dar part 2 Creo que voy a dar un paseo por el parque Después de recibir la factura de teléfono, le dio una voz a su hijo Los científicos han dado con un antídoto para la enfermedad These are 3 more phrases which use dar. Although you know dar means to give, translate these into normal English you would use in everyday speech. I think im going to take a walk around the park The scientists have come across an antidote to the disease After receiving the phone bill, he shouted at his son SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 35. A menos que A menos que vayamos en bicicleta, no podemos llegar No habrá postre; a menos que comas las verduras No me llames a menos que haya un fuego This is a phrase used with the subjunctive and it means unless. Like other phrases, it contains very common words but you need to learn the whole phrase to understand the meaning. Unless we go by bike, we cant get there Dont call me unless theres a fire There will be no pudding; unless you eat your vegetables SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 36. Personal a We met his parents after school Jorge called his plumber Children love piñatas He has his mother-in-law staying with him This often confuses students who first come across it and many students forget to put this into their written work – every time a person (or group of people) is the object of a verb, you need to put a before them. This time try to translate from English to Spanish. Conocimos a sus padres después del colegioTiene a su suegra en casa Jorge llamó a su fontanero A los niños les encantan las piñatas SHIFT+F5 for slide show view
Main menu 37. Personal a at beginning of sentence A Marta y Juanita les encantan las manzanas A los mejicanos les gusta empezar el día con una sopa A mi novio le despidieron hace poco del trabajo Spanish has different word order in sentences so sometimes the personal a appears at the beginning instead of in the middle. You may have noticed this in the last example on the previous page. Marta and Juanita love apples My boyfriend was made redundant a short time ago Mexicans like to start the day with soup SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 38. Noun/Verb order Se quejan mucho las viejas generaciones Iban y venían muchas personas durante la actuación Han desaparecido dos cuadros de arte muy valiosos In English, we almost always have the noun before the verb (John laughs The train is leaving); however in Spanish, it is very common to find the verb phrase coming before the noun. The older generations complain a lot Two very valuable works of art have disappeared Lots of people came and went during the performance SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 39. lo/la/los/las ¿Viste las hermanas de Rosa? Pronouns are words that replace nouns. In English they usually appear at the end of a sentence (I saw it ), (I like them ); however in Spanish they usually appear at the start. Pronouns refer back to something already mentioned but because Spanish has masculine/feminine words the sentences I saw him & I saw her would be different: Lo vi/La vi; just like I saw them could be Los vi/Las vi. Try to choose the correct sentence 1-4 for each example. Did you see Rosas sisters? Yes, I saw it yesterday Yes I saw him yesterday Yes, I saw them yesterday SHIFT+F5 for slide show view 1. Sí, lo vi ayer 2. Sí, la vi ayer 3. Sí, los vi ayer 4. Sí, las vi ayer Did you see Simon in town? ¿Viste a Simón en el pueblo? Yes, I saw them yesterday ¿Viste la nueva película 3D? Did you see the new 3D film? ¿Viste a Sara y su marido? Did you see Sara and her husband?
Main menu 40. Volverse Se volvió loco de repente Si practicas la meditación, te volverás más tranquila A veces los niños pueden volverse melindrosos con la comida Volver is a common verb meaning to return but when it is reflexive (volverse), it means to become. You must be careful in exams to notice which version is used. The verb volverse is used to describe changes in mood/character. He went mad all of a sudden Sometimes children can become picky with their food If you practice meditaion, youll become more calm SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 41. Ponerse Se puso enferma después de un muerdo de mosquito Mi padre se pondrá enfadado conmigo si le gano al ajedrez No te pongas así Poner is a very common verb meaning to put; however when it is reflexive (ponerse) it also means to become. Like the previous verb, it is used to show how peoples emotions/states change. She became ill after a mosquito bite Dont get like that My Dad will get angry with me if I beat him at chess SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 42. Hacerse Esos 2 actores se están haciendo viejos Voy a hacerme socio del club de golf Se hicieron amigos durante el verano Hacer normally means to do/make; however when it is reflexive (hacerse), it also means to become. Unlike the 2 previous verbs, hacerse is used for more permanent things (jobs/religion etc) Those 2 actors are getting old They became friends during the summer Im going to become a member of the golf club SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 43. u & e Los iglúes son construidos de nieve e hielo Los cazadores suelen buscar tigres u ososDe una u otra manera, va a ganar Vendemos productos de lujo e higiene Igloos are made of snow and iceWe sell cleaning and hygiene products The hunters usually look for tigers or bearsOne way or another, hes going to win SHIFT+F5 for slide show view In Spanish the words or & and are normally translated by o & y. However, when o appears before another o or ho and y appears before e or he, these change to u & e. Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu ísimo Las temperaturas en Marruecas fueron altísimas Mi padre conduce un larguísimo camión rojo La cuenta va a ser carísima The temperatures in Morocco were very high The bill is going to be very expensive My father drives an extremely long red lorry SHIFT+F5 for slide show view In Spanish you can put the ending ísimo onto adjectives to give the idea of very / extremely. Often the adjective drops its final letter: pobre = poor but pobrísimo = very poor Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 45. – azo Le dio un puñetazo impresionante Marcó un golazo en el finalEl italiano sufrió un cabezazo del francés Se pegó un martillazo en la mano -azo is a painful suffix. It is added to words (usually body parts) to indicate a hit with that object. It can also be added to increase the power/emphasis of words. He gave him an impressive punch He hit himself in the hand with a hammer He scored a great goal in the final The Italian suffered a headbutt from the Frenchman SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers. Puña = fist
Main menu 46. Una y otra vez Una y otra vez se escapaba de la cárcel Leyó la carta de amor una y otra vez Una y otra vez su ordenador se colgaba This phrase is used to mean time and again so can be found when something is repeatedly done. Time and again he escaped from jail Time and time again his computer crashed She read the love letter time and time again SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 47. Ya Preparados….listos…. Ya! Ya me tienes harta¿Han llegado ya tus abuelos? Ya terminé la primera de mis tareas Ya has many uses and you need to look at the context carefully to choose which one is correct. The most common translations are already and right now. It also means yet as long as it is NOT in a negative sentence. Ready…Steady… Go! I already finished the first of my tasks Im just about sick of youHave your grandparents arrived yet ? SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 48. Ya no Ya no queda espacio en el contenedor Ya no soy tan joven como antes Ya no quiero casarme contigo When these two words are used together, they mean no longer Theres no space left in the recycling bin I dont want to marry you any more Im no longer as young as before SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 49. Cada vez más/menos La chica esquió cada vez más rápido Mis resultados son cada vez peores Cada vez menos gente usa una máquina de escribir El pesista se hace cada vez más fuerte These phrases are used to indicate that something is becoming more and more… or less and less… The girl skiied faster and faster The weightlifter is getting more and more strong My results are worse and worse Less and less people are using typewriters SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 50. El que/La que/Los que/Las que Apoyo a los que se niegan a trabajar por él Las que tienen éxito son las que ahorran su dinero Soy yo el que siempre llega tarde I support those that refuse to work for him I am the one who always arrives late The ones who are successful are those that save their money SHIFT+F5 for slide show view When Spanish people want to identify people/things that have done something or are something, they use the phrases above. Their translations are normally the one(s) that or those that Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 51. Ver /Oír + infinitive Vimos cantar a Shakira en Madrid Le vi interrogar al testigo durante el juicio Les oí gritar por miedo Oigo acercarse el tren Ver and oír are 2 common verbs meaning to see and to hear. Sometimes they appear with infinitives next to them. In this case, the infinitive is used to show the action that was seen or heard. We saw Shakira sing in Madrid I hear the train approaching I saw him interrogate the witness during the trial I heard them shout in fear SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 52. Sí que Sí que puedes fumar en tu despacho Ahora sí que vas a poder defenderte Sí que aprobaste tu examen This phrase has 2 common words: yes and that. However, when they are put together they have the meaning of of course or really. Of course you can smoke in your office Of course you passed your exam Now youre really going to be able to defend yourself SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 53. Lo que Siempre hacemos lo que quiere mi mujer No entiendo lo que han puesto en el examen ¿Has notado lo que ha ganado en autoestima? This is a very common expression but lots of students still get confused by it. You could translate it as the thing that but it is better translated as just what. We always do what my wife wants Have you noticed what shes gained in self esteem? I dont understand what theyve put in the exam SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 54. Quedar part 1 Miles de familias quedaron sin hogar después de las inundaciones Le quedó una cicatriz después del accidente Quedamos a las ocho a la casa Like dar, echar and other verbs, quedar is used for many different things. Its meanings can include to arrange, to agree, to end up and to be left, In the following 2 slides, you will see 6 sentences which you need to try to translate into English. Click to reveal answers. Thousands of families were left homeless after the floods Well meet at 8 at the house He was left with a scar after the accident SHIFT+F5 for slide show view
Main menu 55. Quedar part 2 Quedaron en no decirle nada El chico quedó en ridículo Todavía nos quedan dos horas de clase – Qué rollazo! They agreed not to tell him anything Weve still got two hours of class left – How boring! The boy made a fool of himself SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Quedar is used for many different things. Its meanings can include to arrange, to agree, to end up and to be left Try to translate these 3 sentences into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 56. Quedarse Te estás quedando calvo Se quedó dormido durante sus estudios Quédate allí, no me hables! Me voy a quedar en el hotel Waldorf The reflexive verb quedarse also has lots of different uses. The most common is to stay but it can also mean to be going and to end up Youre going bald Im going to stay in the Waldorf hotel She fell asleep during her studies Stay there, dont speak to me SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 57. De manera que/De modo que Lo he explicado varias veces de modo que lo entienden muy bien Algo en la mente de los hombres es distinto de manera que juegan mejor al ajedrez El líder puede educar a los miembros del equipo de modo que sepan qué hacer Estaba disfrazada de manera que nadie le reconociera These 2 phrases are used with subjunctive & indicative. With the indicative they mean with the result that but with the subjunctive they mean so that. In English however, wed probably use so for both phrases. Below there are 4 sentences. Translate them into English and decide if they are indicative or subjunctive before you guess the correct translation. Ive explained many times so (with the result that) they understand it well. She was in disguise so that nobody recognised her Something in mens brains is different so (with the result that) they play chess better The leader can educate the team members so that they know what to do. SHIFT+F5 for slide show view
Main menu 58. Resultar Resultó ser un malentendido Me resulta muy simpática No te resulta muy favorecedor el vestido This verb looks like it could be a cognate but its not really translated as result. It usually means to work out, to prove & to turn out and is used with outcomes. It turned out to be a misunderstanding The dress doesnt really flatter you I think shes very nice SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 59. Seguir + gerund Londres sigue siendo la ciudad europea más cara Seguirán jugando a pesar del tiempo Sigue creyendo que ganará las elecciones You should know that seguir means to follow and to continue. A gerund is an –ing word (doing/eating/running). You can use use seguir + gerund to give the idea of keeps doing something. London continues to be the most expensive European city He continues believing hell win the elections Theyll continue playing despite the weather SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 60. Un centenar /millar de Había un millar de seguidores en la plaza La tormenta desplazó a millares en Méjico Centenares de personas fueron rescatadas Youve probably learnt that cientos means 100s and miles means 1000s. These 2 words are similar in meaning: centenar = about 100 & millar = about There were about a thousand supporters in the square Hundreds of people were rescued The storm displaced thousands in Mexico SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 61. Sea lo que sea……. Diga lo que diga tu profesor, los romanos eran crueles y sanguinarios Sea lo que sea el precio, debo comprar este vestido Vaya donde vaya, no va a encontrar un sitio mejor If you want to translate phrases that contain whatever (whatever they say / whatever they do), you can use the subjunctive with lo que or donde...etc Whatever your teacher says, the romans were cruel and bloodthirsty Wherever he goes, he wont find a better place Whatever the price is, I must buy this dress SHIFT+F5 for slide show view Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 62. Sea lo que sea.. part 2 Llegue como llegue, será un gran espectáculo Piensen lo que piensen, no les hago caso Hagas lo que hagas, no te rías de ella Using the information on the previous slide, try to figure out what these 3 sentences mean in English. Click to reveal answers. However she arrives, it will be a great sight Whatever you do, dont laugh at her Whatever they think, I ignore them SHIFT+F5 for slide show view
Main menu 63. Tener que ver con No quiero tener nada ver con tu disputa La película tenía que ver con la selva ¿Qué tiene que ver que sólo tenga tres patos You met lots of tener phrases before but maybe not as long as this one. It comes up a lot in texts and it means to have to do with to be related to I dont want to have anything to do with your argument What does it matter that it only has 3 legs The film was about the jungle Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 64. A corto plazo / A largo plazo Nuestro objetivo a corto plazo es atacar el castillo El plazo termina mañana A largo plazo, el efecto invernadero causará mucho daño The word plazo means a period of time and mustnt be confused with plaza. There are many phrases used with plazo but the 2 above are very common. Try to guess the meanings of the 3 following sentences. Click to reveal answers. Our short term objective is to attack the castle In the long term. the green house effect will cause much damage The deadline is tomorrow
Main menu 65. Phrases with body parts Tiene ojo para los negocios No puedo tenerme en pie Lo atacaron por la espalda Many phrases use body parts in them. Most of the time you can guess what they might mean but other times they are a little harder to remember. He has an eye for business He was attacked from behind (the back) I can hardly stand Los pies La pierna La rodilla El estómago La mano El brazo La espalda El cuello La oreja La cabeza Los ojos La nariz La boca El pelo
Main menu 66. Phrases with body parts Se puso de pie para aceptar el premio La familia caminaron del brazo ¿Me echas un ojo al perrito mientras salgo a fumar? Underneath are 3 more phrases with body parts in them. He stood up to accept the prize Will you keep an eye on my puppy while I go smoke? The family walked arm in arm Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 67. Soler No suelo comer los helados pero hoy es mi cumpleaños El profesor solía meterse sobre una caja para hablar Las tortugas suelen vivir para cién años This verb has no direct English translation but it basically means to normally do something. It is used very often in Spanish and will probably turn up in your exam somewhere – try to remember it and pick it out when it appears. I dont normally eat ice creams but today is my birthday Tortoises normally live for a 100 years The teacher always used to stand on a box to speak
Main menu 68. A eso de A eso de las siete habrá un simulacro de incendio A eso de las cinco bajaron a desayunar This phrase is almost always used with time and is used to mean about. At around 7 oclock, there will be a fire drill At about 5 oclock, they went down to breakfast Try to translate these 2 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 69. Volver a + infinitive Ha vuelto a tomar drogas No volveré a trabajar de noche Volví a leer el libro porque era muy interesante Youve already seen volver – to return and volverse – to become. There is also the verb volver a + infinitive which means to do something again or to go back to doing something. He has started taking drugs again I read the book again because it was very interesting I wont go back to working at night
Main menu 70. Para + infinitive (part 1) Me gusta jugar al tenis. Voy a comprar un regalo. Para entrar en un bar, necesitas tener 18 años Es más fácil ser hombre However when the to word (infinitive) is the purpose or reason for something, it is used with para. Look at the differences between the 2 pairs of sentences below. Which sentences have an infinitive as a purpose or reason? Im going to buy a present Im going to town to buy a present I like to play tennis. Necesito ver al médico.I need to see the doctor. Its easier to be a man An infinitive is a to word (comer = to eat / levantarse = to get up..) We use them in lots of phrases especially as the 2 nd verb in a sentence. There are 3 examples below. Voy al centro para comprar un regalo. To go into a bar, you need to be 18 years old Entrar en este bar cuesta 10 euros. Going into this bar costs 10 euros
Main menu 71 Para + infinitive (Part 2) To be convincing, youll need a mask. I love to go fishing You need a license to go fishing I work to pay for my studies So remember that when an infinitive is a purpose/reason for something, it needs to be used with para. A good way of remembering would be that you need to use para for sentences where in order to could be used (Im going to town in order to buy a gift) Para ser convincente, necesitarás una máscara Trabajo para pagar mis estudios Me encanta ir de pesca Necesitas un permiso para pescar This time try to translate these 4 phrases into Spanish. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 72. A partir de A partir de entonces no volvimos a hablarnos A partir de junio de 2002, Bhutto era la primera ministra de Paquistán A partir de hoy no se puede conducir en la ciudad This is a phrase used with time – it looks like a verb but as a whole phrase it means from in the sense of from a certain point in time From that moment on we didnt speak to each other From today, youre not able to drive in the city From June 2002, Bhutto was the prime minister of Pakistan Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 73. A través de Pusieron barricadas a través de la calle Escuché a través de la puerta Me enteré a través del periódico This phrase is very common but is sometimes difficult to understand as it has many meanings. The 3 most common translations are by through and across They put up barricades across the street I learnt it from the newspaper I listened through the door Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 74. Un rato Fue al cine hace un rato Pasé un mal rato durante la fiestaEn mis ratos libres hago la natación Me interrumpe a cada rato This word has nothing to do with mice and rats; its actually a time phrase used to mean a while or time. Often this appears in exams to catch you out so be sure to notice. He went to the cinema a while ago He keeps interrupting me I had a bad time during the partyIn my spare time I go swimming Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 75. Cuanto antes La nota dijo Ven, cuanto antes Te llamaré cuanto antes Necesito un trabajo; cuanto antes, mejor This is another phrase which combines 2 common words: cuanto – how much & antes – before. When these are used together they mean as soon as possible The note said, Come, as soon as possible I need a job, the sooner the better Ill call you as soon as possible Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 76. Cuanto Llévate cuanta comida quieras Gasta cuanto tiene Cuanto más seamos, mejor Grita cuanta quieras, nadie te va a hacer caso Youve come across ¿Cuánto? as a question word meaning How much?. On its own without the accent however, it will mean as much as or as many Take as much food as you wantShout as much as you want, nobody will pay you any attention He spends everything he has got The more of us there are, the better Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 77. Cuando/En cuanto + subjunctive Llámame en cuanto llegues a Japón Tan pronto como termines en el jardín, ven a comer Cuando gane la lotería, voy a mudarme a China When we refer to something in the future that hasnt happened yet in English we use the present tense (When I get to the bank); however in Spanish the subjunctive is used with any phrases like this. Call me as soon as you arrive in Japan When I win the lottery, Im going to move to China As soon as you finish in the garden, come and eat Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 78. De repente De repente el pueblito quedó abandonado Oí un ruido de r epente De repente surgió un nuevo estilo llamado Punk This phrase has nothing to do with repenting. It is an adverb and it means suddenly. Suddenly the village was left deserted All of a sudden a new style emerged called Punk I heard a sound suddenly Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 79. Desde Estuvo en Londres desde el lunes hasta el jueves Nos mudamos desde el centro hasta las afueras No puedo comer desde que María se fue Desde is used to mean since or from and can be used for places and time; sometimes when you learn it with time 1 st, the meaning isnt clear when its used with places.. It is also used in lots of phrases as well as on its own. She was in London from Monday and Thursday I cant eat since María left We moved from the centre to the outskirts Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 80. Echar de menos Echo de menos a mi abuelo, se murió hace poco No voy a echar de menos a estos bichos Vuelve pronto, te echamos de menos You already came across Echar and its many meanings before. When it is used with de menos, it means to miss. I miss my grandfather, he died a short time ago Come back soon, we miss you Im not going to miss these bugs Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 81. En cuanto a En cuanto a ir al cine, me lo pensaré más tarde En cuanto a los animales, sólo admitimos los perros guía En cuanto a los coches, a mí me gusta el Fiat viejo Youve already come across en cuanto which means as soon as; however en cuanto a means as for. Try to remember the slight difference. As for going to the cinema, Ill think about it later As cars go, I like the old Fiat As for animals, we only allow guide dogs in Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 82. Me cae bien/mal... Tu primo me cae muy bien Me cae muy antipática la jefa Me caen un poco mal los escorpión You should have learnt the verb caer to fall. It is also used in giving opinions on things so me cae bien means someone seems nice to you. It is a verb which works like gustar & encantar. I really like your cousin I dont like Scorpios very much The boss seems a bit mean to me Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 83. Hace falta Hacen falta dos vasos más para Marta y Juana Para cocinar al estilo mejicano, hace falta usar pimientos Hace falta que lleves un traje para la entrevista Hace appears in lots of phrases (ago/weather…). It appears in the phrase hace falta where it means something is needed/required. We need 2 more glasses for Marta and Juana Its necessary for you to wear a suit to the interview To cook in the mexican style, you need to use peppers Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 84. Acaso ¿Acaso no te lo advertí ? ¿ Acaso estás nervioso cobarde? Llámame antes de venir por si acaso no estoy Acaso is used in several ways but it can be used to make phrases sarcastic or rhetorical. For example, the simple question Do you want cake? can be made into You want cake then by adding acaso. It can also be translated as maybe or used in phrases por si acaso – just in case & si acaso – if. Didnt i warn you? Call me before you come just in case Im out Are you nervous maybe, you wimp? Si acaso ves a Marta, dale estos flores If by chance you see Marta, give her these flowers Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 85. Primero que nada/ Sobre todo Me gustan los cóctels: sobre todo los martinis Hay mucho paisaje bonito en Inglaterra, sobre todo en el norte Primero que nada, hay que esuchar a la azafata This 1 st phrase primero que nada is quite common and means First of all and sobre todo means above all. I like cocktails, especially martinis First of all, you have to listen to the air hostess Theres lots of pretty countryside in England, above all in the North Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 86. A la vez / Al mismo tiempo Canta a la vez que toca la guitarra Leila y yo nos licenciamos al mismo tiempo Mujeres pueden hacer más cosas a la vez que hombres These 2 phrases have the same meaning of At the same time. The 1 st phrase A la vez is often a phrase that students dont recognise or cant work out. He sings while he plays the guitar Women can do more things at once than men Leila and I graduated at the same time Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 87. Acabar de No gracias, acabo de desayunar Mi novia acaba de llegar del aeropuerto Acababa de meterme en la cama cuando se me ocurrió una idea You should know that acabar means to finish; however there is a common verb acabar de which means to have just. This is something that often appears in exams as it is not easy to guess the meaning. No thanks, Ive just eaten I had just gone to bed when I had an idea My girlfriend has just arrived from the airport Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 88. Premiar/Regalar/Retratar….. Le premiaron por ayudar a los pobres Retrató a su hermano durante las vacaciones Regalaban globos en la playa Sometimes you will find nouns can occur as verbs. If youre unsure of a verb but it looks like a noun you recognise, try to use this information to guess the maning of the sentence. Premio = Prize Regalo = Present Retratar - Portrait They gave her a prize for helping the poor They used to gift free ballons in the beach He painted a portrait of his brother during the holidays Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 89. Sobrar A mí no me sobra dinero Sobró mucha comida después de navidad Nos sobra espacio en nuestra casa Youve probably come across sobre which means above. This verb sobrar is linked to this word, it is the opposite of faltar to be necessary. Sobrar means to be left over I dont have money to throw around We have plenty of space in our house There was lots of food left over after christmas Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 90. Tan …. como Miguel no es tan inteligente como su hermano Motivar a los estudiantes es tan importante como enseñar bien No soy tan fuerte como pensaba This is another common phrase used to compare things that are the same. It translates as as…as. The adjective in the middle should agree with the 1 st thing being compared. Miguel is not as clever as his brother Im not as strong as I thought Motivating students is as important as teaching well Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 91. Tanto como No tengo tanto dinero como tú A causa de la deforestación no hay tantas selvas como antes Tanto los hombres como las mujeres pueden ser enfermeros Tanto como is similar to tan como but its used with nouns and means so many…as or so much…as, or even as much as. I havent got as much money as you Men can be nurses just as much as women Because of deforestation, there are not so many jungles as before Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 92. Este/Ese/Aquel These 3 words are called demonstrative adjectives and translate as This That and That over there. Each has feminine and plural forms. Look at the 2 dialogues & pay attention to the positions of the women referred to. Todavía no me acuerdo de los nombres de tus tres amigas. Bueno, esta mujer aquí se llama Beatriz, esa chica cortando la tarta es Marta y aquella mujer con el bebé se llama Jani. I still dont remember the names of your friends. Well, this woman here is called Beatriz, that girl cutting the cake is Marta and that woman over there with the baby is called Jani.
Main menu 93. A lo mejor A lo mejor este verano vamos a Italia A lo mejor debería comprar un mapa A lo mejor ha entrado un ladrón en la oficina This is another phrase which is made of familiar words but means something different together. A lo mejor translates as maybe or perhaps. Maybe this summer well go to Italy Perhaps a thief has come into the office Maybe I should buy a map Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 94. A no ser que Quedaremos en casa a no ser que haga sol A no ser que me descubran, me quedaré en el bosque A no ser que encuentre mi pasaporte, no puedo ir A no ser que means the same as a menos que – unless. They both take the subjunctive. Well stay at home unless its sunny Unless I can find my passport, I cant go Unless they discover me, I will stay in the wood Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 95. -ito Tengo un perrito que se llama Boris Llevo a mi hijo en cochecito Es pequeñito pero es fortísimo Juanito lloró su primer día en el colegio Have you noticed how women who are married are called Señora Mrs but unmarried women are called Señorita Miss. Señorita is an example of a dimunitive (something that is a smaller version) Just add ito/ita to nouns. I have a puppy called Boris Little Juan cried on his 1 st day at school I take my son around in a pram (little car)Hes absolutely tiny but hes very strong Try to translate these 4 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 96. Dondequiera/Cualquiera/Quienquiera Dondequiera que vayas, estaré contigo. Quienquiera que quiera probar ropa debe ir al probador De cualquiera forma que se haga, te va a criticar These 3 phrases are linked to question words ¿Dónde?, ¿Cuál? and ¿Quién? (where?/which?/who?) but are used to give the idea of something more vague (wherever / whichever, any / whoever). These phrases also take the subjunctive. Wherever you go, I will be with you However you do it, hes going to criticise you Whoever wants to try on clothes needs to go to the fitting room Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 97. Tampoco No he estado en Roma ni tampoco en Paris Ellos tampoco saben el secreto Ese idiota tampoco va a resolver el misterio Tampoco means the opposite of también. It translates as neither or either. Ive not been in Rome, or in Paris either That idiot isnt going to solve the mystery either They dont know the secret either Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 98. Todo el mundo / Todas las partes No todo el mundo tiene gusto para vestirse Todo el mundo tiene derecho a votar Llega la primavera y por todas partes se ven flores These 2 phrases are very common but need to be understood as a whole instead of 1 word at a time. Todo el mundo means everyone whereas todas las partes means everywhere. Not everyone has fashion sense Spring arrives and you see flowers everywhere Everyone has the right to vote Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu 99. Demás Me dio uno y se quedó con los demás Josefina habla y los demás tenemos que callarnos Me gusta la lámpara, todo lo demás es basura Demás is used to mean the rest, the remaining or the others. He gave me one and kept the rest I like the lamp, everything else is rubbish Josefina speaks and the rest of us have to shut up Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
Main menu / ni....ni O mañana o jueves, iremos al circo Ni me gusta, ni me desgusta Para mi próximo quiero o un Porsche o un Ferrari Either tomorrow or Thursday, well go to the circus For my next car I want either a Porsche or a Ferrari I neither like it nor dislike it When you see o….o in sentences or ni…ni, they mean either…or & neither...nor. Try to translate these 3 phrases into English. Click to reveal answers.
And finally You can click on the box below (in slide show view) to practise all the phrases you have learnt in this presentation.