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1 Tema 5. Bibliotecas digitales Sistemas de Gestión Documental.

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Presentación del tema: "1 Tema 5. Bibliotecas digitales Sistemas de Gestión Documental."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 1 Tema 5. Bibliotecas digitales Sistemas de Gestión Documental

2 2 Introducción El término biblioteca digital tiene gran variedad de significados. Destacan 2: Colección de material digitalizado en una biblioteca tradicional. Colección de toda la información digital y servicios asociados que hacen que la colección sea útil para todos los usuarios.

3 3 Introducción A principios de 1990 se realiza un esfuerzo importante en definir lo que es una biblioteca digital...... todavía no se ha hecho de forma exacta. Objetivo de una Biblioteca Digital: Desarrollar sistemas de información que proporcionen acceso a una colección coherente de material, el cual estará cada vez más en formato digital a medida que avance el tiempo, y permitir explotar completamente el uso del material por parte de los usuarios.

4 4 Introducción En comparación con una biblioteca tradicional: Las funciones de las bibliotecas tradicionales de desarrollo y organización de colecciones, acceso y conservación de la información, deben extenderse al ámbito de las bibliotecas digitales. Hay que distinguir una biblioteca digital de un repositorio de información (+servicios de valor añadido a las colecciones digitales).

5 5 Introducción Principios de las bibliotecas digitales: Principal audiencia: investigadores noveles y estudiantes experimentados, no investigadores expertos ni estudiantes noveles. Información a digitalizar: la de más difícil acceso y la que más se desea promocionar. No promocionar metadatos, sino información real y completa. Calidad de materiales, para permitir un buen trabajo de investigadores....

6 6 Introducción... Proporcionar acceso a los contenidos de la biblioteca de forma clara y sencilla. Los objetos interesan más que sus descripciones. Las bibliotecas tradicionales manejan las colecciones con material de referencia. Las colecciones digitales deben implementar los mecanismos adecuados para replicar esta funcionalidad. Promoción de la información multimedia y de las colecciones digitales.

7 7 Introducción Biblioteca digital vs Biblioteca Automatizada. La biblioteca digital contiene información digital. La biblioteca automatizada permite el control de los procesos propios de las bibliotecas de forma automática. Una biblioteca digital no tiene porque estar automatizada, aunque lo ideal es que se integren tanto contenidos digitales como automatización de procesos.

8 8 Introducción El concepto de biblioteca digital ha ido evolucionando... Recuperación de información Automatización de bibliotecas Hipertexto e hiperespacio Biblioteca electrónica Biblioteca virtual World Wide Web Una primera visión de lo que se esperaba de una biblioteca digital...

9 9 Introducción BIBLIOTECA TRADICIONALAPROXIMACION INTERMEDIAINTERNET COMO BIBLIOTECA Los objetos son recursos de informaciónLos objetos pueden ser cualquier cosa Los objetos se seleccionan en función de la calidad No hay control de calidad ni barreras de entrada Los objetos se localizan físicamente en algún lugar Los objetos se localizan lógicamente en algún lugar No hay localización física o lógica estricta para los objetos Los objetos están organizadosLos objetos no están organizados Existe control de autoridadNo existe control de autoridad Los objetos son fijos (no cambian)Los objetos cambian según algunos mecanismos estándares Los objetos cambian sin ningún tipo de control o previsión Los objetos son permanentes (no desaparecen) La desaparición de los objetos está controlada Los objetos pueden desaparecer en cualquier momento El concepto de autor es importanteEl concepto de autor desaparece Acceso limitado a clases de usuariosAcceso ilimitado a todos los recursos Se ofrecen serviciosSolo se ofrecen servicios de IA Hay bibliotecariosNo hay bibliotecarios Hay grupos de usuarios bien definidosAlgunos objetos están asociados con grupos de usuarios No hay grupos de usuarios ? ?

10 10 Introducción Una primera definición: Una biblioteca digital es una colección de servicios y objetos de información que permiten a los usuarios trabajar con dichos objetos, así como la organización y conservación de dichos objetos, disponibles directa o indirectamente, a través de medios electrónicos y digitales.

11 11 Definiciones The new digital libraries will have features not possible in traditional libraries, thereby extending the concept of library far beyond physical boundaries. They will provide innovative resources and services. One example is the ability to interact with information: rather than presenting a reader with a table of numbers, digital libraries allow users to choose from a variety of ways to view and work with the numbers, including graphical representations that they can explore. With the extensive use of hypertext links to interconnect information, digital libraries enable users to find related digital materials on a particular topic.

12 12 Definiciones Digital libraries are organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use a by a defined community or set of communities. [Definición conocida como 5S] Digital libraries are complex data/information/knowlege (hereafter information) systems that help: satisfy the information needs of users (societies), provide information services (scenarios), organize information in usable ways (structures), manage the location of information (spaces), and communicate information with users and their agents (streams).

13 13 Definiciones Digital library work occurs in the context of a complex design space shaped by four dimensions: community, technology, services and content. The field of digital libraries deals with augmenting human civilization through the application of digital technology to the information problems addressed by institutions such as libraries, archives, museums, schools, publishers and other information agencies. Work on digital libraries focuses on integrating services and better serving human needs, through holistic treatment irrespective of interface, location, time, language and system. Although substantial collections may be created solely for the use of individuals, we consider sharable resources one of the defining characteristics of libraries. Libraries connect people and information; digital libraries amplify and augment these connections.

14 14 Definiciones The Digital Library is: The collection of services And the collection of information objects That support users in dealing with information objects And the organization and presentation of those objects Available directly or indirectly Via electronic/digital means.

15 15 Definiciones Digital library is a concept that has different meanings in different communities. To the engineering and computer science community, digital library is a metaphor for the new kinds of distributed data base services that manage unstructured multimedia data. To the political and business communities, the term represents a new marketplace for the world's information resources and services. To futurist communities, digital libraries represent the manifestation of Wells' World Brain.

16 16 Definiciones An organized data base of digital information objects in varying formats maintained to provide unmediated ease of access to a user community, with these further characteristics: an overall access tool (e.g. a catalog) provides search and retrieval capability over the entire data base; organized technical procedures exist through which the library management adds objects to the data base and removes them according to a coherent and accessible collections policy Systems providing a community of users with coherent access to a large, organized repository of information and knowledge.

17 17 Definiciones Digital libraries are a set of electronic resources and associated technical capabilities for creating, searching, and using information. In this sense they are an extension and enhancement of information storage and retrieval systems that manipulate digital data in any medium (text, images, sounds; static or dynamic images) and exist in distributed networks. The content of digital libraries includes data, metadata that describe various aspects of the data (e.g., representation, creator, owner, reproduction rights), and metadata that consist of links or relationships to other data or metadata, whether internal or external to the digital library.

18 18 Definiciones Digital libraries are constructed -- collected and organized -- by a community of users, and their functional capabilities support the information needs and uses of that community. They are a component of communities in which individuals and groups interact with each other, using data, information, and knowledge resources and systems. In this sense they are an extension, enhancement, and integration of a variety of information institutions as physical places where resources are selected, collected, organized, preserved, and accessed in support of a user community. These information institutions include, among others, libraries, museums, archives, and schools, but digital libraries also extend and serve other community settings, including classrooms, offices, laboratories, homes, and public spaces.

19 19 Definiciones Systems providing a community of users with coherent access to a large, organized repository of information and knowledge. This organization of information is characterized by the absence of prior detailed knowledge of the uses of the information. The ability of the user to access, reorganize, and utilize this repository is enriched by the capabilities of digital technology. The generic name for federated structures that provide humans both intellectual and physical access to the huge and growing worldwide networks of information encoded in multimedia digital formats.

20 20 Definiciones A library that has been extended and enhanced by the application of digital technology. Important aspects of the digital library that may be extended and enhanced include : Collections of the library Organization and management of the collections Access of the library items and the processing of the information contained in the items Communication of information about the items

21 21 Definiciones A digital library is a distributed technology environment which dramatically reduces barriers to the creation, dissemination, manipulation, storage, integration, and reuse of information by individuals and groups. A digital library is a machine readable representation of materials which might be found in a university library together with organizing information intended to help users find specific information. A digital library service is an assemblage of digital computing, storage, and communicate machinery together with the software needed to reprise, emulate, and extend the services provided by conventional libraries based on paper and other material means of collecting, storing, cataloging, finding, and disseminating information.

22 22 Arquitectura Modelo de arquitectura para metadatos: Dublin Core. 1995. Metadatos para las características fundamentales de docs. en red. Warwick Framework. 1996. Contenedor de metadatos. Ampliación del Dublin Core. Modelos de referencia para la conservación de objetos digitales: Kahn/Wilensky. Mayo 1995. OAIS (Open Archival Information System). Modelo de referencia ISO CCSDS 650.0-B-1. Enero 2002.

23 23 Arquitectura Dublin Core ContenidoPropiedad Intelectual Instanciación TitleCreatorDate SubjectPublisherType DescriptionContributorFormat SourceRightsIdentifier Language Relation Coverage 1.Título (DC.Title) 2.Autor o Creador (DC.Creator) 3.Claves (DC.Subject) 4.Descripción (DC.Description) 5.Editor (DC.Publisher) 6.Otros Colaboradores (DC.Contributor) 7.Fecha (DC.Date) 8.Tipo del Recurso (DC.Type) 9.Formato (DC.Format) 10.Identificador del Recurso (DC.Indentifier) 11.Fuente (DC.Source) 12.Lengua (DC.Language) 13.Relación (DC.Relation) 14.Cobertura (DC.Coverage) 15.Derechos (DC.Rights)

24 24 Arquitectura Ejemplo de Dublin Core en HTML A Dirge … Rough wind, that moanest loud Grief too sad for song; Wild wind, when sullen cloud Knells all the night long; Sad storm, whose tears are vain, Bare woods, whose branches strain, Deep caves and dreary main, - Wail, for the world's wrong!

25 25 Arquitectura Warwick Framework

26 26 Arquitectura Basada en Kahn/Wilensky

27 27 Arquitectura Basada en Kahn/Wilensky

28 28 Arquitectura Basada en Kahn/Wilensky

29 29 Arquitectura Basada en Kahn/Wilensky Biblioteca compuesta por objetos digitales. Parte del objeto digital son metadatos y manejador. Los objetos se pueden agrupar en conjuntos. Los distintos tipos de materias de la biblioteca digital se pueden agrupar en categorías. El interfase de usuario lo utilizan clientes y administradores. El repositorio almacena y gestiona los objetos digitales. El sistema de manejadores asocia identificadores únicos con objetos digitales. El sistema de búsqueda permite las consultas.

30 30 Arquitectura OAIS

31 31 Ejemplo. Construcción de una Biblioteca Digital (NDLP–USA) I. Select a collection for digital conversion A. Analyze Collection 1. Determine scope or extent of digitization (entire or subset?) 2. Assess status of custodial division processing and housing 3. Assess the status of access aids (degrees of completion, readiness, & format) 4. Assess best format, e.g. full text conversion, scanned page images 5. Assess the physical condition and readiness for scanning 6. Assess restrictions and copyright B. Consensus on collection among custodial div, NDLP team, & Library admin This document outlines the production process for historical collections at the Library of Congress and reflects that institution's administrative structure and procedures. Not every collection requires all of the steps listed; some collections require additional steps not listed. In practice, many of the operations are carried out in parallel and not sequentially. January 1997.

32 32 Ejemplo II. Plan the approach to digitization A. Develop method and resource plans for collection preparation & digitization 1. Develop plan for required processing by custodial division 2. Develop preservation treatment plan 3. Complete evaluation of physical condition with recommendations 4. Determine formats for capture, archiving and presentation 5. Determine physical size ( number of characters, images) & special production requirements B. Determine repository requirements 1. Determine scheme for file name assignment 2. Register aggregate name for collection 3. Estimate required storage space for digital collection 4. Update NDL forecast for storage 5. Evaluate existing finding aids or bib records and develop plan for access aid 6. Develop plan for framework 7. Develop restriction plan & implementation (copyright, terms of gift, publicity and privacy) a) Find and record restriction facts at collection level b) Find and record restriction facts at the item level c) Draft proposal for actions to be taken prior to and at the "release" time d) Draft restriction statement to accompany online collection e) Review copyright restrictions f) Implement action plans 8. Workplan for digitization and access aid completed

33 33 Ejemplo III. Produce digital collection and access aid A. Process and house collection B. Implement preservation treatment plan C. Item Capture 1. Preparation 2. Image Capture 3. Archive images in repository 4. Text Capture 5. Archive text in repository 6. Audio Capture 7. Video capture D. Access Aid Development 1. Modify existing finding aid 2. Create new finding aid 3. Item-level finding aid (Bib record-style) 4. Incorporate basic-level links 5. Add enhanced-access links or subject terms 6. Prepare collection-level MARC record for future inclusion in MUMS E. Access Aid Complete

34 34 Ejemplo IV. Store in digital archive A. Store files in directories as specified by naming scheme B. Register items in URN handle-server (when in use) C. Deposit items in digital repository (when in use) D. All items stored V. Create Framework A. Draft framework components B. Review completed framework components C. Create mockup of HTML document D. HTML mockup approved E. Develop and insert hypertext links F. Coordinate search engine link with ITS G. Insert final links H. Add graphic enhancements to HTML pages I. Mount HTML pages on LCWEB server J. Review framework for accuracy and completeness K. Framework completed

35 35 Ejemplo VI. Assemble digital collection A. Store access aids in directories as specified by naming scheme B. Register document-style access aids in URN handle-server(when in use) C. Deposit document-style access aids in digital repository(when in use) D. Generate indexes for related MARC records E. Generate indexes for textual items in collection F. Prepare customized scripts associated with searching indexes and displaying results G. Add relevant viewers to supported configuration for WWW access in reading rooms H. Assembly completed VII. Test and refine A. Review assembled collection for accuracy and completeness B. Test links C. Make any necessary changes D. Testing completed VIII. Release Collection A. Move HTML pages to production area of LCWEB server B. Provide links to new collection from appropriate points in LCWEB structure C. Add collection-level MARC record with pointer in 856 field to MUMS D. Release digital collection to public IX. Update

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