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EL PASADO EN ESPAÑOL: PARTE 1: El pretérito vs. el imperfecto In Spanish, we use both the preterit and imperfect tenses to describe actions that took place.

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Presentación del tema: "EL PASADO EN ESPAÑOL: PARTE 1: El pretérito vs. el imperfecto In Spanish, we use both the preterit and imperfect tenses to describe actions that took place."— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 EL PASADO EN ESPAÑOL: PARTE 1: El pretérito vs. el imperfecto In Spanish, we use both the preterit and imperfect tenses to describe actions that took place in the past. The question is, how do we choose which tense to use?

2 Uses of the preterit tense (TAKING A POLEROID PICTURE): The preterit tense is used to indicate a completed action in the past. IN PARTICULAR, WE USE THE preterit FOR: 1.Completed actions stated as a simple fact or list of events without much detail (not setting the stage for a story, just listing the facts). 2.Actions which occurred at a specific moment in time/isolated actions. Este fin de semana, vi a mis amigos el viernes. El sábado hice mucha tarea, y el domingo, ayudé a mi mamá con la cena. Fue un fin de semana aburrido. Last weekend I saw my friends on Friday. On Saturday I did a lot of homework, and on Sunday I helped my mom cook dinner. It was a boring weekend. This is preterit because it shows completed actions as simple facts/list of past events without much detail. Rosa escribió un texto a su novio. Rosa wrote a text to her boyfriend. This is preterit because Rosa has completed the specific action (writing a text). Tuvimos un accidente en el carro. We had a car accident. This is preterit because it is an action that happened in a specific moment in time/isolated action.

3 Uses of the imperfect tense (SETTING THE STAGE/SCENERY. THE CAMERA IS RECORDING…) The imperfect tense is used to indicate habitual actions in the past (I always used to…), an action that happened in the past but still is true or happening now, or an action that has no beginning or end time. It is also used to set the stage or describe the situation when you are telling a story. IN PARTICULAR, WE USE THE IMPERFECT FOR: 1.To express what used to happen, or happened repeatedly in the past. Words like nunca, siempre, are used to show habits in the past (imperfect). Siempre hacía mi tarea cuando era pequeño. I always did my homework when I was little. This is imperfect because it describes something that used to happen repeatedly in the past Vivíamos en Miami. We used to live in Miami. This is imperfect because it describes something that we used to do (live in Miami). It also has no beginning or end time.

4 2. To replace the past progressive (i.e. what was happening - was/were + -ing). Los pájaros cantaban The birds were singing. This is imperfect because it describes what was happening, using was/were + an -ing word (singing). 3. To describe characteristics of persons or things in the past. Tom era rubio y tenía los ojos azules. Tom was blonde and had blue eyes. 4. To describe a state of mind, feeling, emotion, physical condition or attitude in the past (specifically for past actions that do not have a beginning/end time and/or might still reach into the present moment). Quería comprar un coche. I wanted to buy a car. This is imperfect because it describes a state of mind in the past that might still be true (wanting to buy a car) using the verb querer. Ana estaba enferma ayer. Ana was sick yesterday. (physical condition that might still be true) Mi papá estaba muy enojado anoche My dad was really mad last night. (emotion that might still be true)

5 5. To express time in the past. Eran las cinco. It was five oclock. (time) 6. To express a persons age when an event took place. Cuando Elena tenía 5 años fue a Disneyland. When Elena was 5 years old, she went to Disneyland. This is imperfect because it expresses the time of day in the past. ** notice that she went (fue) is preterit because it happened once/was an isolated event. 7. Setting the stage/scenery for a story. Era un día muy bonita y los pájaros estaban cantando en el parque. Estaba andando por la calle cuando… It was a pretty day and the birds were singing in the park. I was walking down the street when… This is imperfect because it is setting the stage/scenery for my story. I am not just listing simple facts but instead giving details about an event.

6 Using the preterit and imperfect together: Sometimes, as seen in the last example above, the preterit and imperfect can be used together. This most often happens when something WAS HAPPENING when another action interrupts it. Mónica estaba estudiando cuando su novio le llamó por teléfono. Monica was studying when her boyfriend called her on the phone.

7 EXCEPTIONS TO IMPERFECT RULES: -WEATHER -EMOTIONS, PHYSICAL CONDITIONS, STATE OF MIND, ATTITUDES If you are ONLY stating a fact (no details) OR if you think of the situation as A COMPLETED ACTION (FINISHED, no new discussion about it), you may use the PRETÉRITO. ESTAR (pretérito)ESTAR (imperfecto) yo estuveestaba tú estuvisteestabas él,ella, usted estuvoestaba nosotros estuvimos estábamos ellos/ustedes estuvieronestaban WEATHER (pretérito)(imperfecto) hizo calorhacía calor hizo fríohacía frío

8 ¡A PRACTICAR!

9 ¿El pretérito o el imperfecto? – ¡Escógelo, escríbelo, y defiéndelo! Translate each sentence below. Then, indicate the tense you used and state the rule you used to decide whether the verb(s) should be in the preterit or imperfect tense. Modelo: It was nine oclock. Regla: time Eran las nueve. 1.) She went home. Regla: 2.) Marisa arrived at three oclock. Regla: 3.) We used to play soccer a lot. Regla: 4.) He was 25 years old. Regla: 5.) I saw an accident this morning. Regla: 6.) We didnt go to the beach yesterday. Regla: 7.) We went to the beach every summer. Regla: 8.) They were studying when Carlos called. *Reglas: pretérito/completed action imperfecto/ used to – habitual action imperfecto/age pretérito/completed action, specific moment in time pretérito/completed (action did not occur) imperfecto/habitual action Interrupted action/-ing in the past

10 MÁS PRÁCTICA: ¿Pretérito o imperfecto? Choose whether each of the following statements would require using the preterit or imperfect tense in Spanish by circling P for preterit and I for imperfect: 1.)_______ I ran five miles yesterday. 2.) _______ It was four oclock. 3.) _______ He was reading the newspaper. 4.) _______ She studied for two hours last night. 5.) _______ We went to Canada every year in the summer. 6.) _______ I used to ride my bike all day long. 7.) _______ Wow! Was she angry! 8.) _______You arrived at the hotel in the afternoon. 9.) _______The cat jumped out of the window. 10.) _______It was snowing. 11.) _______It rained yesterday afternoon. 12.) _______He was wearing a black leather jacket. 13.) _______She wore a red skirt yesterday. 14.) _______ We lost the match. 15.) _______ We were so sad. 16.) _______ They vacationed in Hawaii last year. 17.) _______They always vacationed in Florida. 18.) _______They never arrived last night. 19.) _______ Did you have to work last Saturday? 20.) _______ The dog ran after the mailman. P I I P I I I/P P P I I P P P I P P P

11 PARTE 2: EL PRETÉRITO

12 Here are all the preterit forms or regular –ar, -er, and –ir verbs: comprar = to buy (-ar endings: é, aste, ó, amos, aron) (Yo) compré (Tú) compraste (Él/Ella/Ud.) compró (Nosotros) compramos (Ellos/Ellas/Uds.) compraron comer = to eat (-er endings: í, iste, ió, imos, ieron) (Yo) comí (Tú) comiste (Él/Ella/Ud.) comió Nosotros) comimos (Ellos/Ellas/Uds.) comieron vivir = to live (-ir endings: í, iste, ió, imos, ieron) (Yo) viví (Tú) viviste (Él/Ella/Ud.) vivió (Nosotros) vivimos (Ellos/Ellas/Uds.) vivieron

13 –ar and –er verbs that have a stem change in the present tense do not have a stem change in the preterit. encontrar – to find (ue):Encuentro dinero en la calle. Ayer, encontré dinero en la calle. volver – to return (ue):Siempre vuelvo a casa a las cinco de la tarde. Ayer, volví a las seis de la tarde. in the preterit, verbs whose infinitive ends in –gar or –car have a spelling change in the yo form. All of their other preterit forms are regular. pagar yo paguésacar yo saqué llegar yo lleguébuscar yo busqué jugar yo juguétocar yo toqué

14 Of course, there are always some exceptions to the rule. In the preterit, there are some verbs that undergo a stem-change and also have some irregularities in their endings. Some of these verbs are: estar, hacer, poder, poner, querer, tener, venir, decir Fortunately, these verbs do share some similarities so they will not be that difficult to create and use in your everyday Spanish. All of these verbs have a unique stem change in the preterit tense: estar estuv poner pus venir vin hacer hic querer quis decir dij poder pud tener tuv andar anduv This stem-change applies to all persons in the preterit tense. These verbs have a set of endings different from regular verbs: Yo -e EJEMPLO: estuve triste porque tuve un accidente de carro. Tú -iste Él/Ella/Ud. -o Nosotros -imos Ellos/Ellas/Uds. -ieron

15 Finally, three last verbs you should know in the preterit tense are: IR SER DAR Yo fui fui di Tú fuiste fuiste diste Él/Ella Ud. fue fue dio Nosotros fuimos fuimos dimos Ellos/Ellas/Uds. fueron fueron dieron

16 ¡A PRACTICAR!

17 Fill in the chart below with the preterit endings for regular verbs. - í -iste - ió - imos - ieron - é - aste - ó - amos - aron - í -iste - ió - imos - ieron

18 Write all the preterit tense forms of the verbs below. hablar comer escribir Yo ___________________________ _______________ Tú ___________________________ _______________ Él/Ella/Ud. ___________________________ _______________ Nosotros ___________________________ _______________ Ellos/Ellas/Uds. ___________________________ _______________ llevar perder decidir Yo ___________________________ _______________ Tú ___________________________ _______________ Él/Ella/Ud. ___________________________ _______________ Nosotros ___________________________ _______________ Ellos/Ellas/Uds. ___________________________ _______________ cantarcorrer vivir Yo ___________________________ _______________ Tú ___________________________ _______________ Él/Ella/Ud. ___________________________ _______________ Nosotros ___________________________ _______________ Ellos/Ellas/Uds. ___________________________ _______________ hablé hablaste habló hablamos hablaron comí comiste comió comimos comieron escribí escribiste escribió escribimos escribieron llevé llevaste llevó llevamos llevaron perdí perdiste perdió perdimos perdieron decidí decidiste decidió decidimos decidieron canté cantaste cantó cantamos cantaron corrí corriste corrió corrimos corrieron viví viviste vivió vivimos vivieron

19 trabajar vender salir Yo ___________________________ _______________ Tú ___________________________ _______________ Él/Ella/Ud. ___________________________ _______________ Nosotros ___________________________ _______________ Ellos/Ellas/Uds. ___________________________ _______________ vendí vendiste vendió vendimos vendieron trabajé trabajaste trabajó trabajamos trabajaron salí saliste salió salimos salieron

20 ¡Practicamos los verbos irregulares en el pretérito! Give the preterit stem for each of the following verbs: Tener _________ Hacer _________ Poder _________ Poner _________ Querer ________ Estar _________ Venir _________ Decir _________ Andar _________ Give the preterit endings that go with the above verbs. Yo ________ Nosotros ________ Tú ________ Él/Ella/Ud. ________Ellos/Ellas/Uds. ________ tuv pus vin hic quis dij pud estuv anduv e iste o imos ieron

21 Write all six preterit tense forms of the following verbs: estar hacer poner Yo _________________________________________________ Tú _________________________________________________ Él/Ella Ud. _________________________________________________ Nosotros _________________________________________________ Ellos/Ellas/Uds. _________________________________________________ tener poder venir Yo _________________________________________________ Tú _________________________________________________ Él/Ella Ud. _________________________________________________ Nosotros _________________________________________________ Ellos/Ellas/Uds. _________________________________________________ andar querer decir Yo _________________________________________________ Tú _________________________________________________ Él/Ella Ud. _________________________________________________ Nosotros _________________________________________________ Ellos/Ellas/Uds. _________________________________________________ estuve estuviste estuvo estuvimos estuvieron hice hiciste hizo hicimos hicieron puse pusiste puso pusimos pusieron tuve tuviste tuvo tuvimos tuvieron pude pudiste pudo pudimos pudieron vine viniste vino vinimos vinieron anduve anduviste anduvo anduvimos anduvieron quise quisiste quiso quisimos quisieron dije dijiste dijo dijimos dijeron

22 PARTE 3: EL IMPERFECTO

23 EL IMPERFECTO: El imperfecto de los verbos que terminan en -ar Verb Endings: hablar – to talk Yo -aba (Yo) hablaba Tú -abas (Tú) hablabas Él/Ella/Ud. -aba (Él/Ella) hablaba Nosotros -ábamos (Nosotros) hablábamos Ellos/Ellas/ -aban (Ellos/Ellas) hablaban Uds. El imperfecto de los verbos que terminan en -er e -ir Verb Endings: tener – to havevivir – to live Yo -ía tenía vivía Tú -ías tenías vivías Él/Ella/Ud. -ía tenía vivía Nosotros -íamos teníamos vivíamos Vosotros -íais teníais vivíais Ellos/Ellas/ -ían tenían vivían Uds.

24 El imperfecto de ser, ir, y ver: SER – to be IR– to go VER – to see Yo era iba veía Tú eras ibas veías Él/Ella/Ud. era iba veía Nosotros éramos íbamos veíamos Ellos/Ellas/Uds. eran iban veían

25 ¡A PRACTICAR! Fill in the chart below with the imperfect endings. - ía - ías - ía - íamos - ían - aba - abas - aba - ábamos - aban - ía - ías - ía - íamos - ían

26 Write all the imperfect tense forms of the verbs below. hablar comer escribir Yo ___________________________ _______________ Tú ___________________________ _______________ Él/Ella/Ud. ___________________________ _______________ Nosotros ___________________________ _______________ Ellos/Ellas/Uds. ___________________________ _______________ llevar perder decidir Yo ___________________________ _______________ Tú ___________________________ _______________ Él/Ella/Ud. ___________________________ _______________ Nosotros ___________________________ _______________ Ellos/Ellas/Uds. ___________________________ _______________ cantarcorrer vivir Yo ___________________________ _______________ Tú ___________________________ _______________ Él/Ella/Ud. ___________________________ _______________ Nosotros ___________________________ _______________ Ellos/Ellas/Uds. ___________________________ _______________ hablaba hablabas hablaba hablábamos hablaban llevaba llevabas llevaba llevábamos llevaban cantaba cantabas cantaba cantábamos cantaban comía comías comía comíamos comían perdía perdías perdía perdíamos perdían corría corrías corría corríamos corrían escribía escribías escribía escribíamos escribían decidía decidías decidía decidíamos decidían vivía vivías vivía vivíamos vivían

27 ser ir ver Yo ___________________________ _______________ Tú ___________________________ _______________ Él/Ella/Ud. ___________________________ _______________ Nosotros ___________________________ _______________ Ellos/Ellas/Uds. ___________________________ _______________ era eras era éramos eran iba ibas iba íbamos iban veía veías veía veíamos veían


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