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Capitulo 6 DE COMPRAS. V ENEZUELA S IMÓN B OLÍVAR (1783-1830) Caudillo de la independencia hispanoamericana (Caracas, Venezuela, 1783 - Santa Marta,

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Presentación del tema: "Capitulo 6 DE COMPRAS. V ENEZUELA S IMÓN B OLÍVAR (1783-1830) Caudillo de la independencia hispanoamericana (Caracas, Venezuela, 1783 - Santa Marta,"— Transcripción de la presentación:

1 Capitulo 6 DE COMPRAS

2 V ENEZUELA

3 S IMÓN B OLÍVAR ( ) Caudillo de la independencia hispanoamericana (Caracas, Venezuela, Santa Marta, Colombia, 1830). Nacido en una familia de origen vasco de la hidalguía criolla venezolana, Simón Bolívar se formó leyendo a los pensadores de la Ilustración (Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire, Montesquieu…) y viajando por Europa. En París tomó contacto con las ideas de la Revolución y conoció personalmente a Napoleón y Humboldt. Afiliado a la masonería e imbuido de las ideas liberales, ya en 1805 se juró en Roma que no descansaría hasta liberar a su país de la dominación española. Y, aunque carecía de formación militar, Simón Bolívar llegó a convertirse en el principal dirigente de la guerra por la independencia de las colonias hispanoamericanas; además, suministró al movimiento una base ideológica mediante sus propios escritos y discursos.

4 P RETERIT TENSE OF REGULAR VERBS Spanish has two simple tenses to express the past: The preterit and the imperfect ( el pretérito y el imperfecto) The preterite is used to talk about actions or states completed in the past.

5 P RETERIT TENSE OF REGULAR VERBS Comenzamos la clase a las diez. (We start the class at ten) Terminé de comer y comenzamos a estudiar después.(I finished eating and we started studying right after) The nosotros/as forms of the preterit of –ar and –ir verbs are the same as their present tense forms. Context will help you determine if a nosotros/as verb form is present or past.

6 P RETERIT TENSE OF REGULAR VERBS –Ar and –er verbs that have a stem change in the present tense do not have a stem change in the preterite.

7 P RETERIT TENSE OF REGULAR VERBS buscar busqué llegar llegué Sacar ---} saqué empezar empecé Verbs that end in –car, –gar, and – zar have a spelling change in the yo form of the preterite. All the other forms are regular. Ver is regular in the preterite, but none of its forms has an accent. ver vi, viste, vio, vimos, visteis, vieron Creer, leer, and oír have spelling changes in the preterite. Creercreí, creíste, creyó, creímos, creísteis, creyeron Leerleí, leíste, leyó, leímos, leísteis, leyeron Oíroí, oíste, oyó, oímos, oísteis, oyeron

8 E XPRESSIONS TO USE WITH THE PRETERIT TO DENOTE PAST TIME

9 Anteayer empecé una dieta baja en calorías El año pasado tu compraste un coche nuevo

10 P RETERIT OF IR AND SER The preterite forms of ser (to be) and ir (to go) are irregular, so you will need to memorize them. None of these forms has an accent mark. The verbs ir and ser have identical forms in the preterit. They are used often in speaking and writing, and the context will help you determine the meaning.

11 P RETERIT OF IR AND SER Lina fue a ver una película. La película fue muy interesante. Lina went to see a film. Fui a Barcelona el año pasado. Fue un viaje maravilloso. I went to Barcelona last year. It was a wonderful trip. Since the preterite forms of ser and ir are identical, the context clarifies which verb is being used.

12 I NDIRECT OBJECT NOUNS AND PRONOUNS An indirect object is the noun or pronoun that answers the question to whom or for whom an action is done. In this example, the indirect object answers this question: ¿A quién le prestó Roberto cien pesos? To whom did Roberto loan 100 pesos?

13 I NDIRECT OBJECT NOUNS AND PRONOUNS

14 Since le and les have multiple meanings, a + [noun] or a + [pronoun] are often used to clarify to whom the pronouns refer. Unclear: Ella les vendió ropa. Clear: Ella les vendió ropa a ellos. She sold clothing (to them or to you all). She sold clothing to them. Indirect object pronouns usually precede the conjugated verb. In negative sentences, place the pronoun between no and the conjugated verb Te compré un abrigo No te compré nada Indirect object pronouns tell to whom or for whom an action is done, in other words, who is affected by the action

15 I NDIRECT OBJECT NOUNS AND PRONOUNS Use the indirect object pronouns even when the indirect object noun is stated explicitly. Yo le compré un bolso a Ana To eliminate ambiguity, le and les are often used with the proposition a + pronoun Nunca les aconsejo a a ellos mal.

16 When an infinitive or present participle is present, there are two options for indirect object pronoun placement: before the conjugated verb, or attached to the infinitive or present participle. When a pronoun is attached to a present participle, an accent mark is added to maintain the proper stress ?Vas a comprárle un regalo a Lía? ¿Le vas a comprar un regalo a Lía? Are you going to buy a gift for Lía? Estoy mostrándoles las fotos a ellos. Les estoy mostrando las fotos a ellos. ¿ Im showing them the photos Indirect object nouns and pronouns

17 I NDIRECT OBJECT NOUNS AND PRONOUNS The irregular verbs dar (to give) and decir (to say; to tell) are often used with indirect object pronouns. Dar is almost always used with indirect object prononun. Notice the difference in meaning between dar (to give) and regalar (to give as a gift). Other verbs of tranmission (of things,ideas, words) that are generally used with idirect object pronouns include: decir, describir, escribir, explicar, mostrar, prestar, and vender.

18 I NDIRECT OBJECT NOUNS AND PRONOUNS Ella le da un beso a el Isabel le regala un gato a Miguel

19 G USTAR AND SIMILAR VERBS Me gusta ese champú. ¿Te gustan los deportes? That shampoo is pleasing to me. Are sports pleasing to you? I like that shampoo. Do you like sports? Me gusta(n) and te gusta(n) express the concepts of I like and you (fam.) like. The literal meaning of gustar is to be pleasing to (someone).

20 G USTAR AND SIMILAR VERBS Me gustan esos zapatos ?Te gustó mi regalo? The most frecuently used forms of gustar in the present tense are gusta and gustan and for the preterit gustó and gustaron. If one thing is liked use gusta/gustó. If two or more things are liked, use gustan/gustaron

21 L ECCIÓN 6 FIN


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